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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Lynn Nadel, Jenna Campbell, Lee Ryan
Titel    AutobiographicalMemory Retrieval and Hippocampal Activation as a Function of Repetition and the Passage of Time
Zeitschrift    Neural Plasticity
Verlag    Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Jahr    2007
Umfang    14 pages
Anmerkung    Article ID 90472
DOI    10.1155/2007/90472
URL    http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2007/090472/abs/

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    3


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Jm/Fragment 280 18 - Diskussion
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The pattern of dipoles found herein conforms to a greater extent to the Multiple Trace Theory proposed by Nadel and Moscovitch (1997) which posits that the establishment of long-term memories involves a lengthy interaction between the hippocampal region of the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) and neocortical regions both adjacent to the MTL (e.g., perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices) and at a distance (e.g., prefrontal cortex). Unlike standard theory, Multiple Trace Theory posits that the hippocampus remains an integral part of the memory trace and is thus always involved in retrieval of long-term episodic memories regardless of the age of the memory. Nadel and Moscovitch [13] developed an alternative theory of memory consolidation, known as the multiple trace theory (MTT). Similar to the standard theory of consolidation, MTT posits that the establishment of long-term memories involves a lengthy interaction between the hippocampal region of the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) and neocortical regions both adjacent to the MTL (e.g., perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices) and at a distance (e.g., prefrontal cortex). [...] Unlike standard theory, MTT posits that the hippocampus remains an integral part of the memory trace and is thus always involved in retrieval of long-term episodic memories regardless of the age of the memory.
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[2.] Jm/Fragment 281 01 - Diskussion
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[Evidence supporting this view comes from] neuroimaging studies showing that retrieval of detailed episodic memories activates the hippocampus irrespective of how old these memories are (e.g., Maguire et al., 2001; Rekkas & Constable, 2005) and from studies showing that remote episodic memories retrieved by amnesic patients lack the detail present in remote episodic memories of an individual with an intact hippocampus (Moscovitch et al., 2005).

Maguire, E.A., Vargha-Khadem, F., & Mishkin, M. (2001). The effects of bilateral hippocampal damage on fMRI regional activations and interactions during memory retrieval. Brain, 124, 1156–1170.

Moscovitch, M., Rosenbaum, R.S., Gilboa, A., Addis, D.R., Westmacott, R., & Grady, C. (2005). Functional neuroanatomy of remote episodic and semantic and spatial memory: a unified account based on multiple trace theory. Journal of Anatomy, 207, 35–66.

Rekkas, P.V. & Constable, T. (2005). Evidence that autobiographical memory retrieval does not become independent of the hippocampus: An fMRI study contrasting very recent with remote events. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 1950–1961.

Evidence supporting this view comes from neuroimaging studies showing that retrieval of detailed episodic memories activates the hippocampus no matter how old these memories are [14–18] and from studies showing that remote episodic memories retrieved by amnesic patients lack the detail present in remote episodic memories retrieved by an individual with an intact hippocampus [19].

[14] E. A. Maguire, R. N. A. Henson, C. J. Mummery, and C. D. Frith, “Activity in prefrontal cortex, not hippocampus, varies parametrically with the increasing remoteness of memories,” NeuroReport, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 441–444, 2001.

[15] R. Lee, L. Nadel, and K. Keil, “Hippocampal complex and retrieval of recent and very remote autobiographical memories: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging in neurologically intact people,” Hippocampus, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 707–714, 2001.

[16] A. Gilboa, G. Winocur, C. L. Grady, S. J. Hevenor, and M. Moscovitch, “Remembering our past: functional neuroanatomy of recollection of recent and very remote personal events,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1214–1225, 2004.

[17] S. Steinvorth, B. Levine, and S. Corkin, “Medial temporal lobe structures are needed to re-experience remote autobiographical memories: evidence from H.M. and W.R.,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 479–496, 2005.

[18] P. V. Rekkas and R. T. Constable, “Evidence that autobiographical memory retrieval does not become independent of the hippocampus: an fMRI study contrasting very recent with remote events,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1950–1961, 2005.

[19] M. Moscovitch, R. S. Rosenbaum, A. Gilboa, et al., “Functional neuroanatomy of remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory: a unified account based on multiple trace theory,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 207, no. 1, pp. 35–66, 2005.

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[In any] case, increased cortical activation is predicted by both the Standard Theory of Consolidation and Multiple Trace Theory, which both suggest that cortical-cortical connections will be strengthened as a memory is consolidated. However, Multiple Trace Theory emphasizes the importance of repeated retrieval for reconsolidation rather than the mere passage of time, while Standard Theory does not directly address this issue. We assume that these cortical patterns of activity are related to the behavioral changes described earlier, but further research is needed to clarify how the specific behavioral changes are related to neuroimaging changes. Increased cortical activation is predicted by both the standard theory of consolidation and MTT, which suggest that cortical-cortical connections will be strengthened as a memory is consolidated. However, MTT emphasizes the importance of repeated retrieval for reconsolidation rather than the mere passage of time, while standard theory does not directly address this issue. We assume that these cortical increases are related to the behavioral changes described earlier, but further research is needed to clarify how the specific behavioral changes are related to changes in fMRI signal.
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