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Autor     T. Smeets, T. Giesbrecht, M. Jelicic, H. Merckelbach
Titel    Context-dependent enhancement of declarative memory performance following acute psychosocial stress
Zeitschrift    Biological Psychology
Verlag    Elsevier
Ausgabe    76
Datum    10. July 2007
Seiten    116–123
DOI    10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.07.001
URL    http://www.haraldmerckelbach.nl/artikelen_engels/2007/Context-Dependent%20Enhancement%20Of%20Declarative%20Memory%20Performance%20Following%20Acute%20Psychosocial%20Stress.pdf

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Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    3


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Jm/Fragment 029 17 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-12 20:50:56 Graf Isolan
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Exposure to highly stressful events is known to trigger a variety of physiological reactions, of which many are related to the activation of stress-responsive sympatho adrenal-medullary (SAM) and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axes. A plethora of research has revealed that secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) in response to HPA axis stimulation may modulate memory functioning (e.g., de Kloet et al., 1999; McGaugh, 2000; Roozendaal, 2000). However, the precise direction of stress-induced GC effects on memory performance is far from succinct. Animal studies, for example, have shown that GCs can exert both facilitating (e.g., on aversive conditioning) as well as impairing effects on memory (e.g., de Kloet et al., 1999; Lupien & McEwen, 1997; McGaugh & Roozendaal, 2002). Most people are familiar with highly stressful events. Exposure to such events is known to trigger a variety of physiological reactions, of which many are related to the activation of stress-responsive sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axes. A plethora of research has revealed that secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) due to HPA axis stimulation may modulate memory functioning (e.g., de Kloet et al., 1999; McGaugh, 2000; Roozendaal, 2000). However, the precise direction of stress-induced GC effects on memory performance is far from clear. Animal studies, for example, have shown that GCs can have facilitating (e.g., on aversive conditioning), but also impairing effects on memory (e.g., de Kloet et al., 1999; Lupien and McEwen, 1997; McGaugh and Roozendaal, 2002).
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[Similarly,] studies employing human participants have reported that acute GC administration may enhance or disrupt memory, yet the precise conditions under which these effects occur are thus far ill-understood (for reviews, see Het et al., 2005; Lupien et al., 2005; Lupien & Lepage, 2001; Wolf, 2003). Similarly, studies relying on human participants have reported that acute GC administration may enhance or disrupt memory, yet the precise conditions under which these effects occur are ill-understood (for reviews, see Het et al., 2005; Lupien et al., 2005; Lupien and Lepage, 2001; Wolf, 2003).
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Thus far we have herein outlined a plethora of research which has revealed that secretion of GCs due to HPA axis stimulation may modulate memory functioning. However, the precise direction of stress-induced GC effects on memory performance is far from clear. Animal studies, for example, have shown that GCs can have facilitating (e.g., on aversive conditioning), but also impairing effects on memory. Similarly, studies relying on human participants have reported that acute GC administration may enhance or disrupt memory, yet the precise conditions under which these effects occur are ill-understood. Recently, Joëls and colleagues (2006) argued that stress will enhance memory only when the memory acquisition phase and stressor share the same spatiotemporal context (i.e., context-congruency). Smeets and colleagues (2007) tested this hypothesis by examining whether context congruent stress enhances declarative memory performance, as would be predicted by the encoding specificity principle. Participants were assigned to a personality stress group, a memory stress group, or a no-stress control group. While being exposed to the acute stressor or a control task, participants encoded personality and memory-related words and were tested for free recall 24 hours later. Relative to controls, psychosocial stress significantly enhanced recall of contextually-congruent words, but only for personality words. This suggests that acute stress may strengthen the consolidation of memory material when the stressor matches the to-beremembered information in place and time. Recently, Jols et al. [Joëls, M., Pu, Z., Wiegert, O., Oitzl, M.S., Krugers, H.J., 2006. Learning under stress: how does it work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 152–158] argued that stress will enhance memory only when the memory acquisition phase and stressor share the same spatiotemporal context (i.e., context-congruency). The current study tested this hypothesis by looking at whether context-congruent stress enhances declarative memory performance. Undergraduates were assigned to a personality stress group (n = 16), a memory stress group (n = 18), or a no-stress control group (n = 18). While being exposed to the acute stressor or a control task, participants encoded personality- and memory-related words and were tested for free recall 24 h later. Relative to controls, stress significantly enhanced recall of context-congruent words, but only for personality words. This suggests that acute stress may strengthen the consolidation of memory material when the stressor matches the to-be-remembered information in place and time.

[...] A plethora of research has revealed that secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) due to HPA axis stimulation may modulate memory functioning (e.g., de Kloet et al., 1999; McGaugh, 2000; Roozendaal, 2000). However, the precise direction of stress-induced GC effects on memory performance is far from clear. Animal studies, for example, have shown that GCs can have facilitating (e.g., on aversive conditioning), but also impairing effects on memory (e.g., de Kloet et al., 1999; Lupien and McEwen, 1997; McGaugh and Roozendaal, 2002). Similarly, studies relying on human participants have reported that acute GC administration may enhance or disrupt memory, yet the precise conditions under which these effects occur are ill-understood (for reviews, see Het et al., 2005; Lupien et al., 2005; Lupien and Lepage, 2001; Wolf, 2003).

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