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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     M.S. Tollenaar, B.M. Elzinga, P. Spinhoven, W. Everaerd
Titel    Immediate and prolonged effects of cortisol, but not propranolol, on memory retrieval in healthy young men.
Zeitschrift    Neorobiology of learning and memory
Ausgabe    91(1)
Datum    January 2009
Seiten    23-31
Anmerkung    Epub 2008 Sep 14. / The paper has also been published in a book chapter (see linked file). The page count used for documentation is from this book chapter.
DOI    10.1016/j.nlm.2008.08.002
URL    https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/13789/Chapter%204.pdf?sequence=18

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    2


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Jm/Fragment 287 13 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-12 16:23:27 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Tollenaar et al 2009, Verschleierung

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Hindemith
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 287, Zeilen: 13-21
Quelle: Tollenaar et al 2009
Seite(n): 51, Zeilen: 32ff
In animal studies, post-retrieval administration of propranolol has been found to disrupt spatial memory and inhibitory avoidance learning in rodents (Przybyslawski et al., 1999), as well as auditory fear conditioning (Debiec & Ledoux, 2004), with both findings explained in terms of impaired reconsolidation processes. Tronel and Alberini (2007) demonstrated that reconsolidation might also be dependent upon the glucocorticoid system, as they found that a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist disrupted conditioned fear in rats after reactivation of an inhibitory avoidance memory. In a similar vein, Maroun and Akirav (2007) found an impairing effect of stress on reconsolidation in rats, which was reversed by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Post-retrieval administration of propranolol has been found to disrupt spatial memory and inhibitory avoidance learning in rodents (Przybyslawski et al., 1999), as well as auditory fear conditioning (Debiec & Ledoux, 2004), and both findings have been explained in terms of impaired reconsolidation processes. Tronel and Alberini (2007) have recently shown that reconsolidation might also be dependent on the glucocorticoid system, as they found that a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist can disrupt conditioned fear in rats after reactivation of an inhibitory avoidance memory. In line with that, Maroun and Akirav (2007) have found an impairing effect of stress on reconsolidation in rats, which was reversed by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist.
Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[2.] Jm/Fragment 289 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-13 20:15:12 WiseWoman
Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Tollenaar et al 2009, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 289, Zeilen: 1-22
Quelle: Tollenaar et al 2009
Seite(n): 50, 52, Zeilen: 50: 6ff; 52:5ff
Presently there is a paucity of human studies concerned with the effects of cortisol on the reconsolidation process. Tollenaar and colleagues (2008a) recently examined the effects of elevated stress hormones on postretrieval processes in humans. In line with animal studies, a postretrieval decline in memory performance was observed when memories were reactivated during stress (i.e., 5 weeks after encoding). More recently Tollenaar and colleagues (2009) examined both the immediate and prolonged effects of a single administered dose of cortisol or propranolol on memory retrieval in healthy young men, with a one week interval between acquisition and retrieval. Memory retrieval for both neutral and emotional information was impaired by a single dose of cortisol compared to placebo. The cortisol-induced memory impairment remained, even following the one week interval. Conversely, no immediate or prolonged effects of propranolol on memory retrieval were found, despite significant reductions in sympathetic arousal. Such a finding lends support to the hypothesis that cortisol is capable of attenuating emotional memory recall over longer time spans and may therefore be more beneficial in terms of augmenting the treatment of disorders such as PTSD and phobias using beta-blockers such a propranolol.

The effect of blocking adrenergic activity during memory reactivation has recently been studied in humans (e.g., Brunet et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2004). Miller and colleagues reported that fear conditioning was reduced when a conditioned cue was reactivated and followed by noradrenaline beta-blockade. Furthermore, Brunet and colleagues found that postretrieval propranolol reduced psycho-physiological responding to mental imagery of a past traumatic event in PTSD.

[page 50]

The present investigation was therefore undertaken to examine the immediate and prolonged effects of a single administered dose of cortisol or propranolol on memory retrieval in a double-blind placebo controlled design. Eightyfive healthy male participants were asked to retrieve previously learned emotional and neutral information after ingestion of 35 mg cortisol, 80 mg propranolol or placebo. After a washout period of one week, recall was again tested. Memory retrieval of neutral and emotional information was impaired by a single dose of cortisol compared to placebo. The memory impairment due to cortisol remained, even after a washout period of 1 week. No immediate or prolonged effects of propranolol on memory retrieval were found, despite significant reductions in sympathetic arousal. These results lend support to the hypothesis that cortisol is able to attenuate (emotional) memory recall in men over longer time spans and may therefore augment the treatment of disorders like post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias, but do not clarify the mechanism(s) through which propranolol exerts its therapeutic effects.

[page 52]

Human studies on reconsolidation and the effects of cortisol and NA on this process are scarce. In a previously reported study, we examined the effects of elevated stress hormones on post-retrieval processes in humans (Tollenaar et al., 2008b / Chapter 3). In line with animal studies (Maroun & Akirav, 2007), a post-retrieval decline in memory performance was observed when memories were reactivated during stress (5 weeks after encoding). [...] The effect of blocking adrenergic activity during memory reactivation has recently been studied in humans by Miller et al. (2004) and Brunet et al. (2008). Miller and colleagues reported that fear conditioning was reduced when a conditioned cue was reactivated and followed by NA beta-blockade. In addition, Brunet and colleagues found that post-retrieval propranolol reduced psycho-physiological responding to mental imagery of a past traumatic event in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Note that according to the list of references "Tollenaar and colleagues (2009)" refers to a different study.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Singulus

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