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Titel    Intellectual Background: Islamic Sources of Information and their Development into Islamic Law
Herausgeber    Muslim Women's League
Jahr    1995
URL    aktuell unter http://www.mwlusa.org/topics/sources/sources.html; 2001 nachgewiesen unter http://web.archive.org/web/20011105080234/http://www.mwlusa.org/pub_book_sources.html

Literaturverz.   

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Fußnoten    nein
Fragmente    2


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Maa/Fragment 073 04 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-09-09 21:53:03 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Maa, Muslim Women's League 1995, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 73, Zeilen: 4-29
Quelle: Muslim Women's League 1995
Seite(n): 1 (Internetquelle), Zeilen: -
During the Prophet's life the Muslim community respected the Prophet's authority as their spiritual guide, community leader as well as a trusted and respected individual. He intervened in cases of controversy and his counsel was very much solicited; therefore, many of the Muslims took it for granted that the Prophet was always there in case an issue needing clarification. However, this did not negate the benefits of using Ijtihad or independent judgement as the starting point for Consensus. There are examples of the Prophet encouraging the believers to apply the principles of Ijtihad to their everyday lives. For example, it is reported that when the Prophet appointed Moath bin Jabal as governor of Yemen, he asked him what he would do in case an issue arises to which he is uncertain. Moath said he would first refer to the Koran and then to the teachings of Muhammad. The Prophet then asked him what he would do if there were no

clear answer from these sources. Moath answered, to the satisfaction of the Prophet, that he would do the best he could and use his judgement.98

In another example to show that independent judgement was encouraged, the Prophet had ordered Muslims in a mission to not pray Asr (midday prayer) except in Qurayza their destination. When the sun was about to set, some said that the Prophet meant for them to hurry up so they arrive in Quryyza before the sunset, but if they are running late, they should pray on the road. Others took the Prophet's words literally and refused to pray until they reached Qurayza which is a place near to the prophet city after the sun set. Later, when they met with the prophet they asked him which interpretation was correct, and he agreed with both.

After the death of the Prophet, it was seen that from the readiness of the Caliphs Abu Baker and Omar to take advice, that it is evident that the right of interpreting the koranic regulations was not the privilege of any special official [body but could be exercised by anyone who is pious and has a social conscience.]



98 Hasan Uddin, Hashmi, Ijtihad of the Prophet's Companions, Light, 1992, 4ff.

Ijtihad

During the Prophet's life the Muslim community respected the Prophet's authority as their spiritual guide, community leader as well as a trusted and respected individual. He intervened in cases of controversy and his counsel was very much solicited; therefore, many of the Muslims took it for granted that the Prophet was always there in case an issue needing clarification. However, this did not negate the benefits of using ijtihad, or independent judgement, and we have examples of the Prophet encouraging the believers to apply the principles of ijtihad to their everyday lives. For example, it is reported that when the Prophet appointed Mo'adh ibn Jabal governor of Yemen, he asked him what he would do in case an issue arises to which he is uncertain. Mo'adh said he would first refer to the Quran and then to the teachings of Muhammad. The Prophet then asked him what he would do if there is no clear answer from these sources. Mo'adh answered, to the satisfaction of the Prophet, that he would do the best he could and use his judgement. ("Ijtihad of the Prophet's Companions," Light, January-March 92, p. 4, Hasan ud-Din Hashmi) In another example to show that independent judgement was encouraged, the Prophet had ordered Muslims in a mission to not pray Asr (midday prayer) except in Qurayza, their destination. When the sun was about to set, some said that the Prophet meant for them to hurry up so they arrive in Kuryza before the sun set, but if they are running late, they should pray on the road. Others took the Prophet's words literally and refused to pray until they reached Qurayza after the sun set. Later when they met with the Prophet they asked him which interpretation was correct, and he agreed with both. (Need reference)

After the death of the Prophet, it was seen that "from the readiness of the Caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar to take advice it is evident that the right of interpreting the Quranic regulations was not the privilege of any special official body but could be exercised by anyone whose piety or social conscience dictated such a course." (Coulson, 25)

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Sichter
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[2.] Maa/Fragment 074 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-09-09 21:53:10 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Maa, Muslim Women's League 1995, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Verschleierung
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Graf Isolan
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Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 74, Zeilen: 1-7
Quelle: Muslim Women's League 1995
Seite(n): 1 (Internetquelle), Zeilen: -
[After the death of the Prophet, it was seen that from the readiness of the Caliphs Abu Baker and Omar to take advice, that it is evident that the right of interpreting the koranic regulations was not the privilege of any special official] body but could be exercised by anyone who is pious and has a social conscience. To prevent individuals from practicing ijtihad haphazardly, al-Shafi'i developed a methodology for using ijtihad in his book, Usul al-fiqh. Since then, the role of ijtihad has not been in the hands of the laymen but left to a selected few who assume a special role in Islamic law. Today in many Muslim countries, Islamic decisions ranging from personal to political ones are made in the form of fatwas or religious decisions which is a result of this approach. After the death of the Prophet, it was seen that "from the readiness of the Caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar to take advice it is evident that the right of interpreting the Quranic regulations was not the privilege of any special official body but could be exercised by anyone whose piety or social conscience dictated such a course." (Coulson, 25) To prevent individuals from practicing ijtihad haphazardly, al-Shafi'i developed a methodology for using ijtihad in his book, Usul al-fiqh. Since then, the role of ijtihad has not been in the hands of the laymen, but in a select few who occupy a special role in Islamic law. Today in many Muslim countries, Islamic decisions ranging from personal to political are made in the form of fatwas, or religious decisions, where Islamic scholars render a decision on the morality or legality of an issue brought to them.
Anmerkungen

Kein Hinweis auf eine Übernhame.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02

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