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Autor     Bulend Shanay
Titel    Islam: Sunni Tradition: Hanbaliyyah
Sammlung    Overview of World Religions
Herausgeber    Museum of World Religions, Taiwan, and the Department of Religion and Social Ethics, St.Martins's College, Lancaster
Jahr    2000
URL    http://web.archive.org/web/20001027050720/http://www.philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/islam/sunni/hanb.html

Literaturverz.   

nein
Fußnoten    nein
Fragmente    2


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[1.] Maa/Fragment 087 14 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-09-10 15:16:59 Graf Isolan
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Quelle: OWR Hanbaliyyah 2000
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8.4. Hanbali School

The Hanbali School is the fourth important orthodox School of Law within Sunni Islam. Like the other ones it derives its decrees from the Koran and the Sunna, but places them above all forms of Consensus, opinion or inference. That’s why it characterized by an uncompromising attitude. However, the school accepts as authoritative an opinion given by a companion of the Prophet, providing there is no disagreement with another companion. In the case of such disagreement, the opinion of the Companion nearest to that of the Koran or the Sunna will prevail.

The Hanbali School of Law was established by Ahmad bin Hanbal (780 - 855). He studied law under different masters, including Imam Shafi'I, the founder of the third school. Hanbal was regarded as more learned in the Traditions than in jurisprudence. His status also derives from his collection and exposition of the hadiths.

The Hanbali school is the fourth orthodox school of law within Sunni Islam. It derives its decrees from the Qur'an and the Sunnah, which it places above all forms of consensus, opinion or inference. The school accepts as authoritative an opi nion [sic] given by a Companion of the Prophet, providing there is no disagreement with anther Companion. In the case of such disagreement, the opinion of the Companion nearest to that of the Qur'an or the Sunnah will prevail.

History

The Hanbali school of law was established by Ahmad b. Hanbal (d.855). He studied law under different masters, including Imam Shafi'i (the founder of his own school). He is regarded as more learned in the traditions than in jurisprudence. His status also derives from his collection and exposition of the hadiths.

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[2.] Maa/Fragment 088 01 - Diskussion
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Thus, his major contribution to Islamic scholarship is a collection of fifty thousand traditions known as Musnadul-Imam Hanbal118. [...]

In spite of the importance of Hanbal's work his school did not enjoy the popularity of the three preceding Sunni Schools of Law. Hanbal's followers were regarded as reactionary and troublesome on account of their reluctance to give personal opinion on matters of law, their rejection of analogy, their fanatic intolerance of views other than their own, and their exclusion of opponents from power and judicial office. Their unpopularity led to periodic bouts of persecution against them. The later history of the school has been characterised by fluctuations in their fortunes. However, latter Hanbali scholars such as Ibn Taymiyya (died in 1328) and Ibn Qayyim al-Jouzia (died in 1350) did display more tolerance to other views than their predecessors and were instrumental in making the teachings of Hanbali more generally accessible119.

From time to time Hanbaliyyah became an active and numerically strong school in certain. areas under the jurisdiction of the 'Abbassid Caliphate. Nevertheless, its importance gradually declined under the Ottoman Turks. On the other side, the emergence of the Wahabi in the nineteenth century in Central Arabia and its challenge to Ottoman authority enabled Hanbaliyyah to enjoy a period of revival. Today the school is officially recognised as authoritative in Saudi Arabia and areas within the Persian Gulf.


118 Nishi, Purohit, Mohamedan law, Allahabad India 1998, 41ff.


119 Abu Zahra, History of Islam Law, Cairo 1976, 358ff.

His major contribution to Islamic scholarship is a collection of fifty-thousand traditions known as 'Musnadul-Imam Hanbal'.

In spite of the importance of Hanbal's work his school did not enjoy the popularity of the three preceding Sunni schools of law. Hanbal's followers were regarded as reactionary and troublesome on account of their reluctance to give personal opinion on matters of law, their rejection of analogy, their fanatic intolerance of views other than their own, and their exclusion of opponents from power and judicial office. Their unpopularity led to periodic bouts of persecution against them.

The later history of the school has been characterised by fluctuations in their fortunes. Hanbali scholars such as Ibn Taymiyya (d.1328) and Ibn Qayyim al-Jouzia (d.1350), did display more tolerance to other views than their predecessors and were instrumental in making the teachings of Hanbali more generally accessible.

From time to time Hanbaliyyah became an active and numerically strong school in certain areas under the jurisdiction of the 'Abbassid Caliphate. But its importance gradually declined under the Ottoman Turks. The emergence of the Wahabi in the nineteenth century and its challenge to Ottoman authority enabled Hanbaliyyah to enjoy a period of revival. Today the school is officially recognised as authoritative in Saudi Arabia and areas within the Persian Gulf.

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