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Autor     Fathi Osman
Titel    Freedom Of Expression
Herausgeber    Islamic Intelectual Forum
Datum    14. Mai 1996
URL    http://web.archive.org/web/19970103080353/http://www.islamforum.org/freedom.html

Literaturverz.   

nein
Fußnoten    nein
Fragmente    5


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Maa/Fragment 103 02 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-09-09 22:01:27 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Maa, Osman 1996, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Verschleierung
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Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 103, Zeilen: 2-22
Quelle: Osman 1996
Seite(n): 1 (Internetquelle), Zeilen: -
11.1. Freedom of Speech

One of the most essential human rights, the free expression of speech, is addressed by the Koran in order to teach Muslims how freedom of expression and information should be maintained to make such a dialogue fruitful. According to Islam, freedom of expression and information is a basic human right. But Islam goes one step further and condemns spreading lies and false information as well as passiveness and reluctance when the truth should be spoken:

"And do not overlay the truth with falsehood, and do not knowingly suppress the truth"140

A believer who is conscious of God should always maintain and defend truth and justice:

"O you who have attained to faith! Be ever steadfast in upholding equity, bearing witness to the truth, for the sake of God, even though it is against your own selves or your parents and kinsfolk.... "141

"... Be ever steadfast in your devotion to God, bearing witness to the truth in all equity, and never let hatred lead you into the sins of deviation from Justice142

Providing false information about an event which one has witnessed verses in Koran as well as refraining from providing the facts that one knows are both considered grave sins that should be avoided and prevented by every possible means.


140 Koran 2,42.

141 Koran 5,12.

142 Koran 5,12.

The Quran repeatedly reports the arguments of atheists and polytheists and replies to them objectively in order to teach Muslims how freedom of expression and information should be maintained to make such a dialogue fruitful. According to Islam, freedom of expression and information is a basic human right. Islam condemns spreading lies and false information as well as passiveness and reluctance when the truth should be spoken:

"And do not overlay the truth with falsehood, and do not knowingly suppress the truth" (2:42).

A believer who is conscious of God should always maintain and defend truth and justice:

"O you who have attained to faith! Be ever steadfast in upholding equity, bearing witness to the truth, for the sake of God, even though it be against your own selves or your parents and kinsfolk.... " (4:135)

"... Be ever steadfast in your devotion to God, bearing witness to the truth in all equity, and never let hatred lead you into the sins of deviation from justice .... (5:8)

Providing false information about an event which one has witnessed (22:30, 25:4, 72, 58:2), as well as refraining from providing the facts which one knows (2:146, 283, 3:71, 167) are both considered grave sins which should be avoided and prevented by every possible means.

Anmerkungen

Kein Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02

[2.] Maa/Fragment 104 05 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-09-09 22:01:20 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Maa, Osman 1996, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 104, Zeilen: 5-24
Quelle: Osman 1996
Seite(n): 1 (Internetquelle), Zeilen: -
The teachings of the divine message should be revealed to the public and not concealed, even if the message

criticizes or condemns an influential party or authority. It is significant that the Arabic word kafir and its origin kafara mean originally "to conceal, or to hide."143

The vice of hypocrisy (nifaq) is not less condemned in the Koran than atheists or (kufr) in Arabic language:

"They (the hypocrites) are the real enemies. How perverted are their minds." "Behold, together with those who deny the truth, God will gather in hell the hypocrites 144

“Verily the hypocrites shall be in the lowest depth of hell”145.

Likewise, one who is reluctant to provide the facts is actually concealing the truth and such a person is described as "evil at heart" in the Koran and as "a muted devil" in the tradition of the Prophet. Providing the known facts and cooperating constructively so that truth may prevail are fundamental parts of the Islamic obligation of enjoining the doing of what is right and forbidding the doing of what is wrong. One who provides false information or is reluctant to provide the right information becomes a participant in the prevalence of falsehood and evil. Every believer is a witness and protector of the truth during his/her whole life:


143 See the word in a lengthy Arabic dictionary such as Lisan al-Arab; and see the Koranic verses 6:35, 37:14; and 31:32.

144 Koran 4,141.

145 Koran 4,138,145.

The teachings of the divine message should be revealed to the public and not concealed, even when the message criticizes or condemns an influential party or authority (2:159). It is significant that the Arabic word kafir and its origin kafara mean originally "to conceal, or to hide." (See the word in a lengthy Arabic dictionary such as Lisan al-Arab; and see the Quranic verses 6:35, 37:14; and 31:32.)

The vice of hypocrisy (nifaq) is not less condemned in the Quran than kufr:

"They (the hypocrites) are the real enemies . . . , how perverted are their minds." (63:4)

"Behold, together with those who deny the truth, God will gather in hell the hypocrites . . ." (4:140)

"Verily the hypocrites shall be in the lowest depth of hell . . ." (4:145)

Likewise, one who is reluctant to provide the facts is actually concealing the truth and such a person is described as "evil at heart" in the Quran (2:283), and as "a muted devil" in the tradition of the Prophet. Providing the known facts and cooperating constructively so that truth may prevail are fundamental parts of the Islamic obligation of enjoining the doing of what is right and forbidding the doing of what is wrong. (3:110)

One who provides false information or is reluctant to provide the right information becomes a participant in the prevalence of falsehood and evil.

Every believer is a witness and protector of the truth during his/her whole life:

Anmerkungen

Kein Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Schließt im Original unmittelbar an die in Maa/Fragment_104_02 dokumentierte Passage an.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02

[3.] Maa/Fragment 105 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-09-09 22:08:18 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Maa, Osman 1996, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
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Quelle: Osman 1996
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"... So that you may bear witness to the truth before all humanity...."146

God himself is the "ultimate truth" according to the Koran and it is incumbent upon every believer to support the truth in all forms so that it will always prevail. Therefore, freedom of expression and information, constituting both a right and a duty for every believer, should be established and maintained by all Muslims - men and women, rulers and ruled. The Koran orders those who have been entrusted with authority:

"To deliver all that you have been entrusted with unto those who are entitled thereto, and whenever you rule between people to rule with justice"147

11.2. Freedom of assembly

Since Islam is a religion based on public and joint practice of faith, Muslims are addressed as a community to work together in their efforts for progress. The right of assembly, another basic human right, is thus essential to secure correctional efforts against any powerful supporter of deviation from truth and righteousness:

"And the believers, both men and women, are responsible for (or the supporters of) one another; they all enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong148"

"And that there should arise among you a band of people who invite unto all that is good and enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong"149


146 Koran 3, 79.

147 Koran 4,58 .5,12.

148 Koran 2,108.

149 Koran

"... so that you may bear witness to the truth before all humanity ...." (2:143 )

God Himself is the "Ultimate Truth" according to the Quran (22: 6, 24:25), and it is incumbent upon every believer to support the truth in all forms so that it will always prevail. Muslims are addressed as a community to work together in their efforts for progress. The right of assembly is thus essential to secure correctional efforts against any powerful supporter of deviation from truth and righteousness:

"And the believers, both men and women, are responsible for (or the supporters of) one another; they all enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong" (9:71)

"And that there should arise among you a band of people who invite unto all that is good and enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong" (3:104)

[...]

Freedom of expression and information, constituting both a right and a duty for every believer, should be established and maintained by all Muslims - men and women, rulers and ruled. The Quran orders those who have been entrusted with authority

"to deliver all that you have been entrusted with unto those who are entitled thereto, and whenever you rule between people to rule with justice" (4:58-59).

[...]

Anmerkungen

Kein Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02

[4.] Maa/Fragment 106 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-09-09 22:09:46 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Maa, Osman 1996, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 106, Zeilen: 1-23
Quelle: Osman 1996
Seite(n): 1 (Internetquelle), Zeilen: -
"But help one another in furthering virtue and God-consciousness, and not in furthering evil and enmity."150

"And enjoin upon one another the keeping to truth . . . and enjoin upon one another patience (and firmness) in adversity"151

11.3. Freedom of thought and believe

The right of free expression and information cannot be separated from the freedom to think and believe. Intellectual and linguistic capabilities characterize human beings, and thus, the right to form and express opinions represents an essential manifestation of human merits and of God's gifts.

The right to express and to be informed should, therefore, be secured by all who are respectful of humanity or grateful to God. Indeed, if one is allowed to think and believe, but not to communicate with others or exchange views, one's freedom of thought and belief is actually restricted. A human being is a social creature with genuine intellectual capabilities. Therefore, he should always consider more than one perspective of an idea and learn to balance the strength and weakness of it. This cannot be done individually or in isolation. Moreover, the basic condition for freedom of expression and information is that it extends to different viewpoints; otherwise, expression is merely an imposition of ideas and exercise in brainwashing.

Many national and international documents which declare human rights acknowledge the fact freedom of thought and freedom of expression are intertwined. The universal declaration of human rights which was issued by the General Assembly of the United Nations in December 1948 has dealt with both [issues in two successive articles.152]


150 Koran 5,2.

151 Koran 5,14.

[152 Articles 18,19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.]

The rights of expression and information cannot be separated from rights to think and believe. Intellectual and linguistic capabilities characterize human beings, and thus, the right to form and express opinions represents an essential manifestation of human merits and of God's gifts. The right to express and to be informed should, therefore, be secured by all who are respectful of humanity or grateful to God. Indeed, if one is allowed to think and believe, but not to communicate with others or exchange views, one's freedom of thought and belief is actually restricted. As the human being is a social creature, genuine intellectual activity in which a thinker considers more than one perspective on an idea and learns the strength and weakness of it debated, cannot be practiced individually or in isolation. Moreover, the basic condition for freedom of expression and information is that it extends to different viewpoints; otherwise, expression is merely an imposition of ideas and exercise in brain-washing.

Many national and international documents which declare human rights acknowledge the fact that freedom of thought and freedom of expression are intertwined. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights which was issued by the General Assembly of the United Nations in December 1948 has dealt with both in two successive articles (18, 19).

[...]

"But help one another in furthering virtue and God-consciousness, and not in furthering evil and enmity." (5:2)

"And enjoin upon one another the keeping to truth . . . and enjoin upon one another patience (and firmness) in adversity" (103:3)

Anmerkungen

Kein Hinweis auf eine Übernahme. Maa springt mit dem Beginn von Abschnitt 11.3 an den Anfang der ungenannt bleibenden Vorlage.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02

[5.] Maa/Fragment 107 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-09-09 22:01:01 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Maa, Osman 1996, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 107, Zeilen: 1-16, 101-106
Quelle: Osman 1996
Seite(n): 1 (Internetquelle), Zeilen: -
[The universal declaration of human rights which was issued by the

General Assembly of the United Nations in December 1948 has dealt with both]issues in two successive articles. But freedom of thought and believe are also repeatedly emphasized in the Koran:

"There shall be no coercion in matters of faith"153

"And had your Lord so willed, all those who live on earth would have attained to faith - all of them, do you then think that you could compel people to believe?"154

Said (Noah): O my people - what do you think? If (it be true that) I am taking my stand on a clear evidence from my Lord . . . to which you have remained blind, can we force it on you even though it is hateful to you?"155

"And so (O Prophet) exhort them; your task is only to exhort; you cannot compel"156

As long as freedom of expression and information is maintained, different views should be expressed and respected:

"Call you (all humanity) unto your Lord's path with wisdom and goodly exhortation, and Say: argue with them in the most kindly (and convincing manner)”157


152 Articles 18,19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

153 Koran 2,255.

154 Koran 10,71.

155 Koran 10,70.

156 Koran 10,1.

157 Koran 2,150; 109,1,2,3,4.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights which was issued by the General Assembly of the United Nations in December 1948 has dealt with both in two successive articles (18, 19).

Freedom of thought and belief is repeatedly emphasized in the Quran:

"There shall be no coercion in matters of faith" (2:256)"And had your Lord so willed, all those who live on earth would have attained to faith - all of them, do you then think that you could compel people to believe?" (10:99)

"Said (Noah): O my people - what do you think? If ( it be true that) I am taking my stand on a clear evidence from my Lord . . . to which you have remained blind, can we force it on you even though it is hateful to you?" (11:28)

"And so (O Prophet) exhort them; your task is only to exhort; you cannot compel" (88:21-22).

As long as freedom of expression and information is maintained, different views should be expressed and respected:

"Call you (all humanity) unto your Lord's path with wisdom and goodly exhortation, and argue with them in the most kindly (and convincing) manner (16:25).

Anmerkungen

Die Auswahl der Koranverse ist identisch, am Ende ergänzt Maa allerdings erstmalig einen selbst nachgeschlagenen Vers. Kein Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02

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