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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Titel    Water Quality Assessments: A Guide to Use of Biota, Sediments and Water in Environmental Monitoring
Herausgeber    Chapman, Deborah
Verlag    Published on behalf of UNESCO, WHO and UNEP by E&FN Spon, an imprint of Chapman & Hall
Ausgabe    2nd edition
Jahr    1996
ISBN    0 419 21590 5

Literaturverz.   

ja
Fußnoten    ja
Fragmente    1


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Analyse:Mme/Fragment 025 13 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-08-01 21:39:53 Graf Isolan
Chapman 1996, Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, Mme, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Unfertig

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Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 25, Zeilen: 13-25
Quelle: Chapman 1996
Seite(n): 92-93, Zeilen: 92: - 93:1-3.7-10.19-20.25ff.
Chloride (Cl-): it enters surface waters with the atmospheric deposition of oceanic aerosols, with the weathering of some sedimentary rocks (mostly rock salt deposits), from industrial and sewage effluents, and agricultural and road run-off. In pristine freshwaters chloride concentrations are usually lower than 10 mg/L and sometimes less than 2 mg/L. Higher concentrations can occur near sewage and other waste outlets, irrigation drains, salt water intrusions, in arid areas and in wet coastal areas.

Sulphate (SO4-2 [sic]): sulphate is naturally present in surface waters. Industrial discharges and atmospheric precipitation can also add significant amounts of sulphate to surface waters. Sulphate can be used as an oxygen source by bacteria which convert it to hydrogen sulphide (H2S and HS-) under anaerobic conditions. Sulphate concentrations in natural waters are usually between 2 and 80 mg/L, however, they may exceed 1,000 mg/L near industrial discharges or in arid regions where sulphate minerals, such as gypsum, are present. High concentrations (> 400 mg/L) may make the water unpleasant to drink.

[page 92]

3.6.6 Chloride

Most chlorine occurs as chloride (Cl-) in solution. It enters surface waters

[page 93]

with the atmospheric deposition of oceanic aerosols, with the weathering of some sedimentary rocks (mostly rock salt deposits) and from industrial and sewage effluents, and agricultural and road run-off. [...]

In pristine freshwaters chloride concentrations are usually lower than 10 mg l-1 and sometimes less than 2 mg l-1. Higher concentrations can occur near sewage and other waste outlets, irrigation drains, salt water intrusions, in arid areas and in wet coastal areas. [...]

Sulphate

Sulphate is naturally present in surface waters as SO42-. [...] Industrial discharges and atmospheric precipitation can also add significant amounts of sulphate to surface waters. Sulphate can be used as an oxygen source by bacteria which convert it to hydrogen sulphide (H2S, HS-) under anaerobic conditions.

Sulphate concentrations in natural waters are usually between 2 and 80 mg l-1, although they may exceed 1,000 mg l-1 near industrial discharges or in arid regions where sulphate minerals, such as gypsum, are present. High concentrations (> 400 mg l-1) may make water unpleasant to drink.

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