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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     García Curiel María Monserrat de la Luz
Titel    Polymer-inorganic nanocomposites: influence of colloidal silica
Jahr    2004
Anmerkung    Promotion, University of Twente, Enschede
URL    http://doc.utwente.nl/41477/

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    7


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Mrs/Dublette/Fragment 026 04 - Diskussion
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Dublette, Fragment, Gesichtet, KeineWertung, Monserrat De La Luz Garcia Curiel 2004, Mrs, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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The properties of a polymer-reinforced composite are mostly influenced by the size, shape, composition, state of agglomeration, and degree of matrix filler adhesion [80]. Optimum surface curvature at the polymer-filler interface can be realized when large surface areas are created, which is possible when the filler particles are sufficiently small [81].

[80] W. Helbert, J. Y. Cavaille, A. Dufresne, Polymer Composites 1996, 17, 604.

[81] D. W. Clegg, A. A. Collyer, ªMechanical Properties of Reinforced Thermoplasticsº, Elsevier 1986.

The properties of a polymer-reinforced composite are mostly influenced by the size, shape,

[page 5]

composition, state of agglomeration, and degree of matrix-filler adhesion [33] as well as processing parameters. Optimum surface curvature at the polymer-filler interface can be realized when large surface areas are created, which is possible when the filler particles are sufficiently small [34].


[33] Helbert, W., Cavaille, J.Y. and Dufresne, A. Polym. Comp. 17, 604 (1996).

[34] Clegg, D.W. and Collyer, A.A. Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Thermoplastics, Elsevier (1986).

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

See also: Mrs/Fragment 026 02.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02), Hindemith

[2.] Mrs/Fragment 001 13 - Diskussion
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However, it is during the past decade that nanotechnology went through a variety of disciplines. From chemistry to biology, from materials science to electrical engineering, scientists are creating the tools and developing the expertise to bring nanotechnology out of the research labs and into the market place. Nanocomposite materials, when using organic polymer and inorganic fillers, represent a merger between traditional organic and inorganic materials, resulting in compositions that are truly hybrid. Nature has created many (composite) materials, such as diatoms, radiolarian and bone [2], from which scientists can learn. Organic-inorganic composites with nanoscale dimensions are of growing interest because of their unique properties, and numerous potential applications such as enhancement of conductivity, toughness , optical activity [3], catalytic activity [4], chemical selectivity [5,6] etc. In these materials, inorganic and organic components are mixed or hybridized at nanometer scale with virtually any composition leading to the formation of hybrid/nanocomposite materials. Ceramics are generally known for their hardness and brittleness, along with their resistance to high temperatures and severe physical/chemical environments. In addition, many inorganic materials such as silica glass have excellent optical properties such as transparency [7]. For most applications, the brittleness (lack of impact strength) is the major, sometimes fatal, deficiency of ceramics. On the other hand, organic polymers are usually noted for their low density and high toughness. (i.e. high impact [strength), However, lack of hardness is one of the most significant flaws of polymers in many applications.]

[2] D.B. Porter, Conference Proceedings from Organic-Inorganic hybrids conference Guildford, U.K. June (2000).

[3] J.G. Winiarz, L.M. Zhang, M. Lal, Friend, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 121, 5287 (1999).

[4] S.N. Sidorov, et al. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 123, 10502 (2001).

[5] T.C. Merkel, B.D. Freeman, R.J. Spontak, American Journal of Science 296, 519 (2002).

[6] C. Joly, M. Smaihi, L. Porcar, Chemistry of Materials, 11, 2331 (1999).

[7] G. Wypych, Handbook of fillers 2nd Ed. New York (1999).

However, it is during the past decade that nanotechnology went through a variety of disciplines. From chemistry to biology, from materials science to electrical engineering, scientists are creating the tools and developing the expertise to bring nanotechnology out of the research labs and into the market place. Nanostructured composite materials, when using organic polymer and inorganic fillers, represent a merger between traditional organic and inorganic materials, resulting in compositions that are truly hybrid. Nature has created many (composite) materials, such as diatoms, radiolarian [2] and bone [3], from which scientists can learn (Fig. 1). Organic-inorganic composites with nanoscale dimensions are of growing interest because of their unique properties, and numerous potential applications such as enhancement of conductivity [4,5], toughness [6], optical activity [7,8], catalytic activity [9], chemical selectivity [10,11] etc. In these materials, inorganic and organic components are mixed or hybridised at nanometer scale with virtually any composition leading to the formation of hybrid/nanocomposite materials [12-22]. [...].

Ceramics are generally known for their hardness and brittleness, along with their resistance to high temperatures and severe physical/chemical environments [23, 24]. In addition, many inorganic materials such as silica glass have excellent optical properties such as transparency [25]. For most applications, the brittleness (lack of impact strength) is the major, sometimes fatal, deficiency of ceramics [23]. On the other hand, organic polymers are usually noted for their low density and high toughness. (i.e., high impact strength).


[2] Volkmer, D. Chemie in unserer Zeit 33, 6 (1999).

[3] Porter, D.B. Conference Proceedings from Organic-Inorganic hybrids conference Guildford, U.K. June (2000).

[4] Coronado, E., Galan-Mascaros, J.R., Gomez-Garcia, C.J. and Laukhin, V., Nature 408, 447 (2000).

[5] Croce, F., Appetecchi, G.B., Persi, L. and Scrosati, B. Nature 394, 456 (1998).

[6] Pinnavaia, T.J. Science 220, 365 (1983).

[7] Wang, Y. and Herron, N. Science 273, 632 (1996).

[8] Winiarz, J.G., Zhang, L.M., Lal, M., Friend, C.S. and Prasad, P.N. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5287 (1999).

[9] Sidorov, S.N. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10502 (2001).

[10] Merkel, T.C. Freeman, B.D., Spontak, R.J., He, Z., Pinnau, I., Meakin, P. and Hill, A.J. Science 296, 519 (2002).

[11] Joly, C., Smaihi, M., Porcar L. and Noble, R.D. Chem. Mater. 11, 2331 (1999).

[12] Hajji, P., David, L., Gerard, J.F., Pascault, J.P. and Vigier, G. J. Polym. Sci. 37, 3172 (1999).

[13] Sanchez, C., Ribot, F. and Lebeau, B. J. Mater. Chem. 9, 35 (1999). Sanchez, C., LeBeau, B.and Ribot, F. J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech 19, 31 (2000).

[14] Pomogailo, A. D. Russ. Chem. Rev. 69, 53 (2000).

[15] Hajji, P., David, L., Gerard, J.F, Kaddami, H., Pascault, J.P. and Vigier, G. Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 576, 357 (1999).

[16] Novak, B.M. Adv. Mater. 5, 422 (1993).

[17] Lichtenha, J.D., Schwab, J.J. and Reinerth, W.A. Chem. Innovation 31, 3 (2001).

[18] Sanchez, C. and Ribot, F. New J. Chem. 18, 1007 (1994).

[19] Ellsworth, M.W. and Gin, D.L. Polymer News 24, 331 (1999).

[20] Kwiatkowski, K. C. and Lukehart, C. M. in Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology, Volume 1: Synthesis and Processing, Nalwa, H. S. Ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA (2000).

[21] Schubert, U., Hüsing, N. and Lorenz, A. Chem. Mater. 7, 2010 (1995).

[22] Morikawa, A., Iyoku, Y., Kakimoto, M. and Imai, Y. J. Mater. Chem. 2, 679 (1992).

[23] Reed, J.S. Principles of Ceramics Processing 2nd Ed. (1995).

[24] Richerson, D.W. Modern Ceramic Engineering 2nd Ed. (1992).

[25] Wypych G. Handbook of fillers 2nd Ed. New York (1999).

Anmerkungen

No source is given.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02), WiseWoman

[3.] Mrs/Fragment 002 01 - Diskussion
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However, lack of hardness is one of the most significant flaws of polymers in many applications. Associated with the lack of hardness are the problems of low wear and scratch resistance as well as dimensional stability. The developments of conventional composite materials with ceramics as fillers and polymers as matrices are being researched extensively. Important examples of these composite materials are the semi-crystalline polymers mixed with inorganic particles. They consist of an amorphous-crystalline matrix (with a lamella thickness of typical size of 10 to 100 nm) and dispersed nanoparticles. They can be tailor-made to exhibit excellent elasticity (e.g., synthetic rubber) or optical transparency (e.g., polymethacrylates or Plexiglas). They can

[page 2]

be tailor-made to exhibit excellent elasticity (e.g., synthetic rubber) or optical transparency (e.g., polymethacrylates or PlexiglasTM). However, lack of hardness is one of the most significant flaws of polymers in many applications. Associated with the lack of hardness are the problems of low wear and scratch resistance as well as dimensional stability [26]. The developments of conventional composite materials with ceramics as fillers and polymers as matrices are being researched extensively. Important examples of these composite materials are the semi-crystalline polymers mixed with inorganic particles [27]. They consist of an amorphous-crystalline matrix (with a lamella thickness of typical size of 10 to 100 nm) and dispersed nanoparticles.


[26] Hutchings, I.M. Tribology. Friction and wear of engineering materials. Ed. Edward Arnold (1992).

[27] Schrauwen, B. Deformation and failure of semi-crystalline polymer systems. PhD Thesis University of Eindhoven. The Netherlands. (2003).

Anmerkungen

No source is given.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02), WiseWoman

[4.] Mrs/Fragment 003 24 - Diskussion
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‘What are the potential uses of nanotechnology?’ In the limited number of years that nanotechnology has been investigated, a plethora of answers to this question have been presented. It seems that nanotechnology could potentially solve almost any problem; thus, a more interesting question is, 'what real problems will nanotechnology solve?' Nanocomposite technology has been described as the next great frontier of material science. For example, polymer resins containing well-dispersed layered silicate nanoclays are emerging as a new class of nanocomposites. The reason is that by employing minimal addition levels of filler (< 10 wt %) nanoclays enhance mechanical, thermal, dimensional and barrier performance properties [significantly.] ‘What are the potential uses of nanotechnology?’ In the limited number of years that nanotechnology has been investigated, a plethora of answers to this question have been presented. It seems that nanotechnology could potentially solve almost any problem; thus, a more interesting question is, 'what real problems will nanotechnology solve?' Nanocomposite technology has been described as the next great frontier of material science. For example, polymer resins containing well-dispersed layered silicate nanoclays are emerging as a new class of nanocomposites. The reason is that by employing minimal addition levels of filler (< 10 wt%) nanoclays enhance mechanical, thermal, dimensional and barrier performance properties significantly.
Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned anywhere.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02), Hindemith

[5.] Mrs/Fragment 004 01 - Diskussion
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It has been said that for every 1 wt% addition, a property increase on the order of 10% (or more) is realized. This loading-to-performance ratio is known as the “nano-effect”. It has been said that for every 1 wt% addition, a property increase on the order of 10% (or more) is realized. This loading-to-performance ratio is known as the “nano-effect” [28].

[28] Hirschinger, J., Miura, H., Gardner, K.H. and English, A.D. Macromolecules 23, 2153 (1990).

Anmerkungen

The passage starts on the previous page: Mrs/Fragment 003 24

The source is not mentioned anywhere, and the reference to Hirschinger et al. has been removed.

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(SleepyHollow02), Hindemith

[6.] Mrs/Fragment 024 11 - Diskussion
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2.4. Nanoparticle based nanocomposite

Inorganic particles are used in different matrices for specific purposes [54]. For metals, fillers improve high temperature creep properties and hardness when compared with the pure metal. For ceramics, fillers are used to improve their toughness [53] and for polymers for the increase of stiffness, strength, electrical properties and occasionally for toughness. [...] The incorporation of fillers into organic polymers may result in a brittle composite material. In addition, the amount of filler that can be incorporated is limited (thus, sometimes the addition of higher amounts of filler does not improve the mechanical properties of the material) and the filler may not be uniformly dispersed in the organic polymer. The efficiency of the filler to modify the properties of the polymer is primarily determined by the degree of dispersion in the polymer matrix.


[53] Callister, W.D. Materials Science and Engineering. An Introduction. 5th Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1999).

[54] Wypych, G. Handbook of fillers. 2nd Edition. New York (1999).

Inorganic particles are used in different matrices for specific purposes [43]. For metals, fillers improve high temperature creep properties and hardness when compared with the pure metal. For ceramics, fillers are used to improve their toughness [35] and for polymers for the increase of stiffness, strength, electrical properties and occasionally for

[page 14]

toughness. [...]

Unfortunately, the incorporation of fillers in organic polymers can result in a brittle composite material. In addition, the amount of filler that can be incorporated is limited (sometimes the addition of higher amounts of filler doest not improve the mechanical properties of the material) and the filler may not be uniformly dispersed in the organic polymer. The efficiency of the filler to modify the properties of the polymer is primarily determined by the degree of dispersion in the polymer matrix.


[35] Callister, W.D. Materials Science and Engineering. An Introduction. 5th Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1999).

[43] Wypych, G. Handbook of fillers. 2nd Edition. New York (1999).

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned, the references to the literature are also copied.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02), Hindemith

[7.] Mrs/Fragment 025 20 - Diskussion
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2.4.2. Silica

Silica has been used in different polymers as a reinforcement material. Examples are in methacrylate [61-72], polyimide [6, 73], polyamide [74], rubbery epoxies [75], and acrylic [76]. [...] The specific function of the filler is based on the specific resin system, particle size, surface area, loading and surface modification. Because of the high bond energy in the Si-O bond, SiO2 has extremely high thermal stability. SiO2 also possesses a very low thermal expansion coefficient.


[6] C. Joly, M. Smaihi, L. Porcar, Chemistry of Materials, 11, 2331 (1999).

[61] M.M. Hasan, Y. Zhou, H. Mahfuz, Materials Science and Engineering A 429 (2006) 181– 188

[62] F.Hussain, M.Hojjati, M.Okamoto, Journal of COMPOSITE MATERIALS, Vol. 40, No. 17/2006, and references therein.

[63] Zheng, Y.P., Zheng Y. and Ning, R.C. (2003, Materials Letters, 57(19): 2940–2944.

[64] Tang, J., Wang, Y., Liu, H., Xia, Y. and Schneider, B. (2003), J. of Applied Polymer Science, 90: 1053–1057.

[65] M.W.L. Wilbrink, A.S. Argon, R.E. Cohen, M. Weinberg, Polymer 42 (26) (2001) 10155– 10180.

[66] H. Mahfuz, V.K. Rangari, M.S. Islam, S. Jeelani, Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf. 35 (4) (2004) 453–460.

[67] G. Chen, G. Luo, X. Yang, Y. Sun, J. Wang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 380 (1–2) (2004) 320– 325.

[68] N. Chisholm, H. Mahfuz, V.K. Rangari, A. Ashfaq, S. Jeelani, Compos. Struct. 67 (1) (2005) 115–124.

[69] M.Z. Rong, M.Q. Zhang, Y.X. Zheng, H.M. Zeng, K. Friedrich, Polymer 42 (7) (2001) 3001–3004, 3001.98

[70] X. Li, G. Wang, X. Li, Surf. Coatings Technol. 197 (1) (2005) 56–60.

[71] G. Vigier, J. Pascualt, J. Gerard, L. David, and Haiji, Journal of Polymer Science. 37, 3172 (1999)

[72] Ch. Landry, and B. Coltrain, Polymer 33, 7 (1992).

[73] Y. Yang, J. Yin, Z. Qi, and Z. Zhu, Journal of Applied Polymer Science 73, 2977 (1999).

[74] F. Yang, Y.Ou, and Z. Yu, Journal of Applied Polymer Science 69, 355 (1998).

[75] J. Kolarik, O. Dukh, L. Matejka, Polymer 41, 1449 (2000).

[76] K. Qiu, and Z. Huang, Polymer 38, 521 (1997).

[77] E. Werner, van Zyl, G. Monserrat, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 2002, 287, 106-110, and references therein.

[78] E. P. Giannelis, Advanced Materials 1996, 8, 29.

Silica

Silica has been used in different polymers as a reinforcement material. Examples are in methacrylate [70-73], polyimide [74-75], polyamide [76], rubbery epoxies [77], and acrylic [78]. The specific function of the filler is based on the specific resin system, particle size, surface area, loading and surface modification. Because of the high bond energy in the Si-O bond, SiO2 has extremely high

[page 16]

thermal stability. SiO2 also possesses a very low thermal expansion coefficient.


[70] Brinker, J. and Scherer, G. Sol-Gel Science, Academic Press (1990). D.H. Everett, Basic principles of colloid science Ed. The Royal Society of Chemistry, print. Whitstable, Kent, UK (1988).

[71] Vigier, G., Pascualt, J., Gerard, J., David, L. and Haiji, J. Polym. Sci. 37, 3172 (1999).

[72] Mallouk, T., Ollivier, J. and Johnson, S. Science 283 (1999).

[73] Landry, Ch. and Coltrain, B. Polymer 33, 7 (1992).

[74] Smaihi, M., Joly, C. and Noble, R. Chem. Mater. 11, 2331 (1999).

[75] Yang, Y., Yin, J., Qi, Z. and Zhu, Z. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 73, 2977 (1999).

[76] Yang, F., Ou, Y. and Yu, Z.-Z. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 69, 355 (1998).

[77] Kolarik, J., Dukh, O., Matejka, L. Polymer 41, 1449 (2000).

[78] Qiu, k. and Huang, Z. Polymer 38, 521 (1997).

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

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