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Autor     D.R. Paul, L.M. Robeson
Titel    Polymer nanotechnology: Nanocomposites
Zeitschrift    Polymer
Datum    13. April 2008
Nummer    49
Seiten    3187–3204
DOI    10.1016/j.polymer.2008.04.017
URL    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0032386108003157

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    2


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[1.] Mrs/Fragment 002 20 - Diskussion
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The field of nanotechnology is one of the most popular areas for current research and development in all technical disciplines. This obviously includes polymer science and technology and even in this field, the investigations cover a broad range of topics. This would include microelectronics (which could now be referred to as nanoelectronics) as the critical dimension scale for modern devices is now below 100 nm. Other areas include polymer-based biomaterials, nanoparticle drug delivery, mini emulsion particles, fuel cell electrode polymer bound catalysts, layer-by-layer self-assembled polymer films, electrospun nanofibers, imprint lithography, polymer blends and nanocomposites. Even in the field of nanocomposites, many diverse topics exist including composite reinforcement, barrier properties, flame resistance, electro-optical properties, cosmetic applications, bactericidal properties. Nanotechnology is not new to polymer science as prior studies before the age of nanotechnology involved nanoscale dimensions but were not specifically referred to as nanotechnology until recently. Phase separated polymer blends often achieve nanoscale phase dimensions; block copolymer domain morphology is usually at the nanoscale level; asymmetric [membranes often have nanoscale void structure, mini emulsion particles are below 100 nm; and interfacial phenomena in blends and composites involve nanoscale dimensions.] 1. Introduction

The field of nanotechnology is one of the most popular areas for current research and development in basically all technical disciplines. This obviously includes polymer science and technology and even in this field the investigations cover a broad range of topics. This would include microelectronics (which could now be referred to as nanoelectronics) as the critical dimension scale for modern devices is now below 100 nm. Other areas include polymer-based biomaterials, nanoparticle drug delivery, miniemulsion particles, fuel cell electrode polymer bound catalysts, layer-by-layer self-assembled polymer films, electrospun nanofibers, imprint lithography, polymer blends and nanocomposites. Even in the field of nanocomposites, many diverse topics exist including composite reinforcement, barrier properties, flame resistance, electro-optical properties, cosmetic applications, bactericidal properties. Nanotechnology is not new to polymer science as prior studies before the age of nanotechnology involved nanoscale dimensions but were not specifically referred to as nanotechnology until recently. Phase separated polymer blends often achieve nanoscale phase dimensions; block copolymer domain morphology is usually at the nanoscale level; asymmetric membranes often have nanoscale void structure, miniemulsion particles are below 100 nm; and interfacial phenomena in blends and composites involve nanoscale dimensions.

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[Phase separated polymer blends often achieve nanoscale phase dimensions; block copolymer domain morphology is usually at the nanoscale level; asymmetric] membranes often have nanoscale void structure, mini emulsion particles are below 100 nm; and interfacial phenomena in blends and composites involve nanoscale dimensions. Even with nanocomposites, carbon black reinforcement of elastomers, colloidal silica modification and even naturally occurring fiber (e.g., asbestos-nanoscale fiber diameter) reinforcement are subjects that have been investigated for decades [9].

Almost lost in the present nanocomposite discussions are the organic–inorganic nanocomposites based on sol–gel chemistry which have been investigated for several decades [10]. In essence, the nanoscale of dimensions is the transition zone between the macro level and the molecular level. Recent interest in polymer matrix based nanocomposites has emerged initially with interesting observations involving exfoliated clay and more recent studies with carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, exfoliated graphite (graphene), nanocrystalline metals and a host of additional nanoscale inorganic filler or fiber modifications.


[9] D.R. Paul, L.M. Robeson, Polymer 49 (2008) 3187–3204

[10] J.E.Mark, CY. Jiang, MY. Tang, Macromolecules 1984; 17:2613–6.

Phase separated polymer blends often achieve nanoscale phase dimensions; block copolymer domain morphology is usually at the nanoscale level; asymmetric membranes often have nanoscale void structure, miniemulsion particles are below 100 nm; and interfacial phenomena in blends and composites involve nanoscale dimensions. Even with nanocomposites, carbon black reinforcement of elastomers, colloidal silica modification and even naturally occurring fiber (e.g., asbestos-nanoscale fiber diameter) reinforcement are subjects that have been investigated for decades. Almost lost in the present nanocomposite discussions are the organic–inorganic nanocomposites based on sol–gel chemistry which have been investigated for several decades [1-3]. In essence, the nanoscale of dimensions is the transition zone between the macrolevel and the molecular level. Recent interest in polymer matrix based nanocomposites has emerged initially with interesting observations involving exfoliated clay and more recent studies with carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, exfoliated graphite (graphene), nanocrystalline metals and a host of additional nanoscale inorganic filler or fiber modifications.

[1] Mark JE, Jiang CY, Tang MY. Macromolecules 1984;17:2613–6.

[2] Wilkes GL, Orler B, Huang H. Polym Prep 1985;26:300–1.

[3] Wen J, Wilkes GL. Chem Mater 1996;8:1667–81.

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