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Autor     Mary DeRosa
Titel    Data Mining and Data Analysis for Counterterrorism
Herausgeber    Center for Strategic and International Studies
Ort    New York
Verlag    The CSIS Press
Jahr    2004
ISBN    0-89206-443-9
URL    http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/040301_data_mining_report.pdf

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    6


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Nm/Fragment 023 27 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-29 22:24:01 Hindemith
BauernOpfer, DeRosa 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, Nm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Defeating terrorist networks requires a more nimble intelligence apparatus that operates more actively and makes use of advanced information technology. Data mining for counterterrorism (In the study we call it as investigative data mining [FN 4]) is a powerful tool for [intelligence and law enforcement officials fighting terrorism (DeRosa Mary, 2004).]

[FN 4] The term is firstly used by Jesus Mena in his book Investigative Data Mining and [Criminal Detection, Butterworth (2003).]

Defeating terrorism requires a more nimble intelligence apparatus that operates more actively within the United States and makes use of advanced information technology. Data-mining and automated data-analysis techniques are powerful tools for intelligence and law enforcement officials fighting terrorism.
Anmerkungen

Although the source is given nothing is marked as a citation.

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[2.] Nm/Fragment 024 01 - Diskussion
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Data mining actually has relatively narrow meaning: the approach that uses algorithms to determine analytical patterns in datasets. Subject-based automated data analysis applies models to data to predict behaviour, assess risk, determine associations, or do other type of analysis (DeRosa Mary, 2004). The models used for automated data analysis can be used on patterns discovered by data mining techniques.

Although these techniques are powerful, it is a mistake to view investigative data mining techniques as complete solution to security problems. The strength of investigative data mining (IDM) is to assist analysts and investigators. IDM can automate some tasks that analysts would otherwise have to accomplish manually. It can help to place in order attention and focus an inquiry, and can even do some early analysis and sorting of masses of data. Nevertheless, in the multifaceted world of counterterrorism, it is not likely to be useful as the only source for a conclusion or decision.

“Data mining” actually has a relatively narrow meaning: it is a process that uses algorithms to discover predictive patterns in data sets. “Automated data analysis” applies models to data to predict behavior, assess risk, determine associations, or do other types of analysis. The models used for automated data analysis can be based on patterns (from data mining or discovered by other methods) or subject based, which start with a specific known subject. [...]

Although these techniques are powerful, it is a mistake to view data mining and automated data analysis as complete solutions to security problems. Their strength is as tools to assist analysts and investigators. They can automate some functions that analysts would otherwise have to perform manually, they can help prioritize attention and focus an inquiry, and they can even do some early analysis and sorting of masses of data. But in the complex world of counterterrorism, they are not likely to be useful as the only source for a conclusion or decision.

Anmerkungen

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This technique is also known as subject based link analysis. This technique uses aggregated public records or other large collection of data to find the links between a subject — a suspect, an address, [or a piece of relevant information — and other people, places, or things.] A relatively simple and useful data-analysis tool for counterterrorism is subject-based “link analysis.” This technique uses aggregated public records or other large collections of data to find links between a subject — a suspect, an address, or other piece of relevant information — and other people, places, or things.
Anmerkungen

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[This technique uses aggregated public records or other large collection of data to find the links between a subject—a suspect, an address,] or a piece of relevant information—and other people, places, or things. This can provide additional clues for analysts and investigators to follow (DeRosa Mary, 2004). This technique uses aggregated public records or other large collections of data to find links between a subject—a suspect, an address, or other piece of relevant information—and other people, places, or things. This can provide additional clues for analysts and investigators to follow.
Anmerkungen

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Taking an example of 9/11 attack, it is possible to show, that simple IDM techniques discussed above can be used to assist terrorist investigation. IDM techniques using government watch list information, airline reservation records, and aggregated public [record data, could have identified all 19 hijackers of 9/11 terrorists attacks before the attack. (DeRosa Mary, 2004):] A hindsight analysis of the September 11 attacks provides an example of how simple, subject-based link analysis could be used effectively to assist investigations or analysis of terrorist plans. By using government watch list information, airline reservation records, and aggregated public record data, link analysis could have identified all 19 September 11 terrorists — for follow-up investigation — before September 11. [FN 16]

[FN 16] Of course, this kind of analysis will always appear neater and easier with hindsight, but it is a useful demonstration nonetheless.

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[IDM techniques using government watch list information, airline reservation records, and aggregated public] record data, could have identified all 19 hijackers of 9/11 terrorists attacks before the attack. (DeRosa Mary, 2004):

The details about these links can be summarized as follows:

&bullet; Watch List Information (Direct Links)

o Khalid Almindhar and Nawaf Alhazmi, both were involved in 9/11 hijacking and were on U.S. government terrorist watch list.

o Ahmed Alghamdi, who hijacked United Airlines (UA) Flight 175, and crashed it into the World Trade Center South Tower, was on an Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) watch list for illegal or expired visas.

It is noteworthy to specify all three of the above given terrorists used their real names to reserve the flights.

&bullet; Link Analysis (One Degree of Separation)

o Muhammad Atta and Mavan Al shehhi, both hijackers used same contact address for their flight reservations that Khalid Almihdhar used for his flight reservation.

o Salem Alhazmi, used the same contact address on his reservation as Nawaf Alhazmi.

o Majed Moqed used the same frequent flyer number that Khalid Al mindhar used in his reservation.

o Hamza Alghamdi, used the same contact address on his reservation as Ahmed Alghamdi used on his reservation.

o Hani Hanjour, lived with both Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar, a fact that searches of public records could have revealed.

[p. 6]

By using government watch list information, airline reservation records, and aggregated public record data, link analysis could have identified all 19 September 11 terrorists—for follow-up investigation—before September 11. [FN 16] The links can be summarized as follows:

[p. 7]

Direct Links — Watch List Information

Khalid Almihdhar and Nawaf Alhazmi, both hijackers of American Airlines (AA) Flight 77, which crashed into the Pentagon, appeared on a U.S. government terrorist watch list. Both used their real names to reserve their flights.

Ahmed Alghamdi, who hijacked United Airlines (UA) Flight 175, which crashed into the World Trade Center South Tower, was on an Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) watch list for illegal or expired visas. He used his real name to reserve his flight.

Link Analysis — One Degree of Separation

Two other hijackers used the same contact address for their flight reservations that Khalid Almihdhar listed on his reservation. These were Mohamed Atta, who hijacked AA Flight 11, which crashed into the World Trade Center North Tower, and Marwan Al Shehhi, who hijacked UA Flight 175.

Salem Alhazmi, who hijacked AA Flight 77, used the same contact address on his reservation as Nawaf Alhazmi.

The frequent flyer number that Khalid Almihdhar used to make his reservation was also used by hijacker Majed Moqed to make his reservation on AA Flight 77.

Hamza Alghamdi, who hijacked UA Flight 175, used the same contact address on his reservation as Ahmed Alghamdi used on his.

Hani Hanjour, who hijacked AA Flight 77, lived with both Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar, a fact that searches of public records could have revealed.

Anmerkungen

continued from previous page; most formulations are taken from the original, nothing is marked as a citation.

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