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Autor     Jeffrey Heer, Stuart K. Card, James A. Landay
Titel    prefuse: a toolkit for interactive information visualization
Sammlung    CHI ’05: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems - Portland, OR, USA — April 02 - 07, 2005
Herausgeber    ACM
Ort    New York
Jahr    2005
Seiten    421-430
DOI    10.1145/1054972.1055031
URL    http://web.cs.dal.ca/~sbrooks/csci4166-6406/seminars/readings/Heer_Prefuse_CHI05.pdf

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    11


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Although information visualization (infovis) techniques prove to be vital tools for making sense of complex data. To report these issues, we have used Prefuse, a software framework for creating dynamic visualizations of both structured and unstructured data. The Prefuse provides theoretically-motivated abstractions for the design of a wide range of visualization applications, enabling programmers to string together desired components quickly to create and customize working visualizations. Although information visualization (infovis) technologies have proven indispensable tools for making sense of complex data, wide-spread deployment has yet to take hold, [...] To address these issues, we have created prefuse, a software framework for creating dynamic visualizations of both structured and unstructured data. prefuse provides theoretically-motivated abstractions for the design of a wide range of visualization applications, enabling programmers to string together desired components quickly to create and customize working visualizations.
Anmerkungen

The source will be given later on with regard to the following paragraphs.

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6.3 DESIGN OF THE PREFUSE TOOLKIT [FN 31]

In this Section the toolkit design (illustrated in Figure 6.2), presenting the architecture, basic abstractions, and provided libraries for processing and visualizing information is discussed.

[FN 31] The matter is taken from (Heer et al., 2005)

DESIGN OF THE PREFUSE TOOLKIT

We now describe the toolkit design (illustrated in Figure 2), presenting the architecture, basic abstractions, and provided libraries for processing and visualizing information.

Anmerkungen

Footnote 31 - indeed. In fact, already starting with the previous paragraph, there can be found nearly identical copies of large bodies of the original paper. This continues on the following pages of Nm's thesis.

However, Heer et al. is not listed in the bibliography.

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6.3.2 Filtering

Filtering is the process of mapping abstract data to a representation suitable for visualization. [...] The corresponding visual analogues (called VisualItems) are generated, which, in addition to the attributes of the source data, record visual properties such as location, colour, and size. Individual filters are provided in [Prefuse as Action modules, discussed later in this section.]

Filtering

Filtering is the process of mapping abstract data to a representation suitable for visualization. [...] Next, corresponding visual analogues (called VisualItems) are generated, which, in addition to the attributes of the source data, record visual properties such as location, color, and size. Individual filters are provided in prefuse as Action modules, discussed later in this section.

Anmerkungen

Starting with figure 6.2, which indeed is an exact copy (together with its caption) from Heer et al. (2005), after an "intermission" containing a paragraph which Nm seems to have authored himself (to paraphrase what could be found in the source), Nm continues his word-for-word "take-over" from Heer et al. (2005).

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[Individual filters are provided in] Prefuse as Action modules, discussed later in this section.

In the data state model of (Chi, E.H., 2000), filtering is made up of the Visualization Transformation: reducing abstract data to visualizable content. Filtering can also be understood as implementing a tiered version of the model-view-controller pattern (Krasner, G.E. and S.T. Pope, 1988). Abstract data provides a base model for any number of visualizations, while filtered data constitutes a visualization-specific model with its own set of view controllers. This enables multiple visualizations of a shared data set by using separate filters, and different views of a specific visualization by reusing the same filtered items, while isolating filtering logic away from the main application logic

6.3.3 Managing Visual Items: The ItemRegistry

Prefuse provides three types of VisualItem by default: NodeItems to visualize individual entities, EdgeItems to visualize relations between entities, and AggregateItems to visualize aggregated groups of entities. These items are arranged in a graph structure separate from the source data, maintaining a local version of the data topology and thereby enabling flexible representations of visualized content. If desired, additional VisualItem types can also be introduced.

VisualItems are recorded centrally in “ItemRegistry”. ItemRegisrty [sic!] data structure contains the overall state for a specific visualization. Filter Actions request visual analogues from the registry, which returns the VisualItems, creating them as needed. ItemRegistry can be viewed as a mapping between the abstract data and VisualItems. The ItemRegistry also contains a FocusManager.

[p. 3]

Individual filters are provided in prefuse as Action modules, discussed later in this section.

In the data state model of [EN 15], filtering constitutes the Visualization Transformation: reducing abstract data to visualizable content. Filtering can also be understood as implementing a tiered version of the model-view-controller pattern [EN 29]. Abstract data provides a base model for any number of visualizations, while filtered data constitutes a visualization-specific model with its own set of viewcontrollers. This enables multiple visualizations of a shared data set by using separate filters, and different views of a specific visualization by reusing the same filtered items.

[p. 4]

Managing Visual Items: The ItemRegistry

prefuse provides three types of VisualItem by default: NodeItems to visualize individual entities, EdgeItems to visualize relations between entities, and AggregateItems to visualize aggregated groups of entities. These items are arranged in a graph structure separate from the source data, maintaining a local version of the data topology and thereby enabling flexible representations of visualized content. If desired, additional VisualItem types can also be introduced.

VisualItems are created and stored in a centralized data structure called the ItemRegistry, which houses all the state for a specific visualization. Filter Actions request visual analogues from the registry, which returns the VisualItems, creating them as needed, and records the mapping between the abstract data and visualized content. The ItemRegistry also contains a FocusManager, [...]

---

[EN 15] Chi, E.H. A Taxonomy of Visualization Techniques Using the Data State Reference Model. InfoVis '00. pp. 69-75 2000.

[EN 29] Krasner, G.E. and S.T. Pope, A Description of the Model-View-Controller User Interface Paradigm in the Smalltalk-80 System. Journal of Object-Oriented Programming, 1988. 1(3): p. 26-49.

Anmerkungen

Continuation from previous page. A typo is to be found, where the text is not taken identically from the source. Interesting: a corresponding phrase in both texts (Visualization Transformation) is in italics.

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To ensure performance, the ItemRegistry also recycles item instances when they are removed from the registry, avoiding object initialization costs that can cripple performance.

6.3.4 Actions

Actions are basic components of application design in Prefuse. Actions are composable processing modules that update the VisualItems in an ItemRegistry. Actions are the mechanism for selecting visualized data and setting visual properties, performing tasks such as filtering, layout, colour assignment, and interpolation. To facilitate extensibility, Actions follow a simple API: a single run method that takes an ItemRegistry and an optional fraction indicating animation progress as input. In addition, base classes for specific Action types such as filters and layout algorithms are provided. While Actions can perform arbitrary processing tasks, most fall into one of three types: filter, assignment, and animator actions. Filter actions performs tasks like filtering as described in previous subsections. Assignment actions are used to set attributes of VisualItems, for example: its position or colour. A variety of layout management techniques are also coded as actions in Prefuse. Animator actions interpolate visual attributes between starting and ending values to achieve animation, using the animation fraction provided by the Action interface. Prefuse includes animators for locations, colours, fonts, and sizes.

6.3.5 ActionLists and Activities

ActionLists are runnable routines which contain actions. A user may add as many Actions to ActionList as one wants. ActionList sequentially execute them as a sequential pipeline executing resources. These lists form processing pipelines that are invoked in response to user or system events. ActionLists are Actions themselves, allowing lists to be used as sub-routines of other lists [and recursion.]

To ensure performance, the ItemRegistry also recycles item instances when they are removed from the registry, avoiding object initialization costs that can cripple performance.

Actions

The basic components of application design in prefuse are Actions: composable processing modules that update the VisualItems in an ItemRegistry. Actions are the mechanism for selecting visualized data and setting visual properties, performing tasks such as filtering, layout, color assignment, and interpolation. To facilitate extensibility, Actions follow a simple API: a single run method that takes an ItemRegistry and an optional fraction indicating animation progress as input. In addition, base classes for specific Action types such as filters and layout algorithms are provided. While Actions can perform arbitrary processing tasks, most fall into one of three types: filter, assignment, and animator actions.

Filter actions perform the filtering process discussed earlier, controlling what entities and relations are represented by VisualItems in the ItemRegistry [...]

Assignment actions set visual attributes, such as location, color, font, and size, for VisualItems. prefuse includes extensible color, font, and size assignment functions and a host of layout techniques for positioning items.

Finally, animator actions interpolate visual attributes between starting and ending values to achieve animation, using the animation fraction provided by the Action interface. prefuse includes animators for locations, colors, fonts, and sizes.

ActionLists and Activities

To perform data processing, Actions are composed into runnable ActionLists that sequentially execute these Actions. These lists form processing pipelines that are invoked in response to user or system events. ActionLists are Actions themselves, allowing lists to be used as sub-routines of other lists.

Anmerkungen

Continuation from previous page. The second portion is marginally rewritten.

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ActionLists can be configured to run once, or to run periodically for a specified duration.

The execution of ActionLists is managed by a general activity scheduler, implemented using the approach of (Hudson, S. and J.T. Stasko, 1993). The scheduler accepts Activity objects (a superclass of ActionList), parameterized by start time, duration, and step rate, and runs them accordingly. The scheduler runs in a dedicated thread and oversees all active Prefuse visualizations, ensuring atomicity and helping avoid concurrency issues. A listener interface enables other objects to monitor activity progress, and pacing functions (Hudson, S. and J.T. Stasko, 1993) can be applied to parameterize animation rates (e.g., to provide slow-in slow-out animation).

6.3.6 Rendering and Display

Renderes draws VisualItems on the screen using the visual attributes of an item, for example, location, colour, to determine its actual on-screen appearance.

Renderers have a simple API consisting of three methods: one to draw an item, one to return a bounding box for an item, and one to indicate if a given point is contained within an item. Prefuse includes Renderers for drawing basic shapes, straight and curved edges, text, and images, including image loading, scaling, and caching support. Implementing user can also define their own renders by extending existing Renderers, or by implementing the Renderer interface to implement custom behaviour.

Mappings between items and appearances are managed by a RendererFactory: given a VisualItem, the RendererFactory returns an appropriate Renderer. This layer of indirection affords a high level of flexibility, allowing many simple Renderers to be written and then doled out as needed. It also allows visual appearances to be easily changed, either by issuing different Renderers in response [to data attributes, or by changing the RendererFactory for a given ItemRegistry.]

[p. 4]

ActionLists can be configured to run once, or to run periodically for a specified duration.

[p. 5]

The execution of ActionLists is managed by a general activity scheduler, implemented using the approach of [EN 24]. The scheduler accepts Activity objects (a superclass of ActionList), parameterized by start time, duration, and step rate, and runs them accordingly. The scheduler runs in a dedicated thread and oversees all active prefuse visualizations, ensuring atomicity and helping avoid concurrency issues. A listener interface enables other objects to monitor activity progress, and pacing functions [EN 24] can be applied to parameterize animation rates (e.g., to provide slow-in slow-out animation).

Rendering and Display

VisualItems are drawn to the screen by Renderers, components that use the visual attributes of an item (e.g., location, color) to determine its actual on-screen appearance. Renderers have a simple API consisting of three methods: one to draw an item, one to return a bounding box for an item, and one to indicate if a given point is contained within an item. prefuse includes Renderers for drawing basic shapes, straight and curved edges, text, and images (including image loading, scaling, and caching support). Custom rendering can be achieved by extending existing Renderers, or by implementing the Renderer interface.

Mappings between items and appearances are managed by a RendererFactory: given a VisualItem, the RendererFactory returns an appropriate Renderer. This layer of indirection affords a high level of flexibility, allowing many simple Renderers to be written and then doled out as needed. It also allows visual appearances to be easily changed, either by issuing different Renderers in response to data attributes, or by changing the RendererFactory for a given ItemRegistry.


[En 24] Hudson, S. and J.T. Stasko. Animation Support in a User Interface Toolkit: Flexible, Robust, and Reusable Abstractions. UIST’93. pp. 57-67, 1993.

Anmerkungen

continued from previous page;

The whole page is a nearly left intact copy of material from Heer et al. (2005). The first sentence of 6.3.6 contains a typo, and that is in a part that was re-written.

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[It also allows visual appearances to be easily changed, either by issuing different Renderers in response] to data attributes, or by changing the RendererFactory for a given ItemRegistry. This also provides a clean mechanism for semantic zooming (Perlin, K. and D. Fox, 1993) – the RendererFactory can select Renderers appropriate for the current scale value of a given display.

Display component presents the visualized data. Display acts as a camera onto the contents of an ItemRegistry. The Display is an extension of JComponent (Swing’s base component), and thus can be used in any Java Swing application. The Display takes an ordered enumeration of visible items from the registry, applies view transformations, computes the clipping region, and draws all visible items using appropriate Renderers. The Java2D library is used to support affine transformations of the view, including panning and zooming and other animation strategies. ItemRegistry can be tied to multiple Displays, enabling multiple views. Displays support interaction with visualized items through a ControlListener interface, providing callbacks in response to mouse and keyboard events on items. Displays also provide direct manipulation textediting of item content and allow arbitrary Swing components to be used as interactive tooltips.

6.3.7 The Prefuse Library

Prefuse architecture is supported by a huge library, a bundle of default implementations and significant components. These components simplify application design by providing advanced functions frequently used in visualizations.

Layout and Distortion. Prefuse library contains a variety of implemented actions to manage layout and distortion techniques. Available layouts include random, circular, gridbased, forcedirected, top-down (Reingold, E.M. and J.S. Tilford, 1981), radial (Yee, K.-P., D. Fisher, R. Dhamija, and M.A. Hearst; 2001), [indented outline, and tree map [EN 32] (Bruls, M., K. Huizing, and J.J. van Wijk, 2000) algorithms.]

[EN 32] http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/treemap-history/

It also allows visual appearances to be easily changed, either by issuing different Renderers in response to data attributes, or by changing the RendererFactory for a given ItemRegistry. This also provides a clean mechanism for semantic zooming [EN 38] – the RendererFactory can select Renderers appropriate for the current scale value of a given Display.

Presentation of visualized data is performed by a Display component, which acts as a camera onto the contents of an ItemRegistry. The Display subclasses Swing’s top-level JComponent, and can be used in any Java Swing application. The Display takes an ordered enumeration of visible items from the registry, applies view transformations, computes the clipping region, and draws all visible items using appropriate Renderers. The Java2D library is used to support affine transformations of the view, including panning and zooming. In addition, an ItemRegistry can be tied to multiple Displays, enabling multiple views (e.g., overview+detail [EN 12]).

Displays support interaction with visualized items through a ControlListener interface, providing callbacks in response to mouse and keyboard events on items. Displays also provide direct manipulation text-editing of item content and allow arbitrary Swing components to be used as interactive tooltips.

The prefuse Library

The core prefuse architecture described above is leveraged by a library of significant components. These components simplify application design by providing advanced functions frequently used in visualizations.

Layout and Distortion. prefuse is bundled with a library of Action modules, including a host of layout and distortion techniques. Available layouts include random, circular, gridbased, force-directed, top-down [EN 40], radial [EN 48], indented outline, and tree map [EN 10, EN 44] algorithms.

[EN 38] Perlin, K. and D. Fox. Pad: An Alternative Approach to the Computer Interface. SIGGRAPH'93. pp. 57-64, 1993.

[EN 12] Card, S.K., J.D. Mackinlay, and B. Shneiderman, Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think. San Francisco, California: Morgan-Kaufmann, 1999.

[EN 40] Reingold, E.M. and J.S. Tilford, Tidier Drawings of Trees. IEEE Transactions of Software Engineering, 1981. SE-7: p. 21-28.

[EN 48] Yee, K.-P., D. Fisher, R. Dhamija, and M.A. Hearst. Animated Exploration of Dynamic Graphs with Radial Layout. InfoVis'01. pp. 43-50 2001.

[EN 10] Bruls, M., K. Huizing, and J.J. van Wijk. Squarified TreeMaps. In Proceedings of Joint Eurographics and IEEE TCVG Symp. on Visualization (TCVG 2000): IEEE Press. pp. 33-42, 2000.

[EN 44] Treemaps for Space-Constrained Visualization of Hierarchies. 1998. http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/treemap-history/

Anmerkungen

continued from previous page.

Also see Nm/Fragment 183 25 where the source is mentioned.

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[Available layouts include random, circular, gridbased, forcedirected, top-down (Reingold, E.M. and J.S. Tilford, 1981), radial (Yee, K.-P., D. Fisher, R. Dhamija, and M.A. Hearst; 2001),] indented outline, and tree map32 (Bruls, M., K. Huizing, and J.J. van Wijk, 2000) algorithms. These layouts are parameterized and reusable components. These facilitate the user to define their own new layouts by using existing modules. In addition, Prefuse supports space distortion of item location and size attributes, including graphical fisheye views (Sarkar, M. and M.H. Brown, 1992) and bifocal distortion (Leung, Y.K. and M.D. Apperley, 1992).

Force Simulation. Prefuse includes an extensible and configurable library for force-based physics simulations. This consists of a set of force functions, including n-body forces like gravity, spring forces, and drag forces. To support real-time interaction, n-body force calculations use the Barnes-Hut algorithm (Barnes, J. and P. Hut, 1986) to compute the otherwise quadratic calculation in log-linear time. The force simulation supports various numerical integration schemes. It is based on dynamic calculation of trade-offs in efficiency and accuracy, to update velocity and position values. These modules are based on numerical techniques like classic Runge-Kutta method. Again the design is flexible enough to accommodate the user defined extension to existing force based simulations.

Interactive Controls. Following the basic design of the Interactor paradigm (Myers, B.A., 1990), Prefuse includes parameterizable ControlListener instances for common interactions. It includes drag controls for repositioning ViualItems, focus controls for updating focus, navigation controls for panning and zooming, including both manual controls and speed-dependent automatic zooming (Igarashi, T. and K., 2000) and highlight settings in response to mouse actions and key press actions.

Available layouts include random, circular, gridbased, force-directed, top-down [EN 40], radial [EN 48], indented outline, and tree map [EN 10, EN 44] algorithms. These layouts are parameterized and reusable, hence one can write new layouts by composing existing modules. In addition, prefuse supports space distortion of item location and size attributes, including graphical fisheye views [EN 43] and bifocal distortion [EN 32].

Force Simulation. prefuse includes an extensible and configurable library for force-based physics simulations. This consists of a set of force functions, including n-body forces (e.g., gravity), spring forces, and drag forces. To support realtime interaction, n-body force calculations use the Barnes-Hut algorithm [EN 2] to compute the otherwise quadratic calculation in log-linear time. The force simulation supports various numerical integration schemes, with trade-offs in efficiency and accuracy, to update velocity and position values. The provided modules abstract the mathematical details of these techniques (e.g., 4th Order Runge-Kutta) from toolkit users. Users can also write custom force functions and add them to the simulator.

Interactive Controls. Inspired by the Interactor paradigm [EN 36], prefuse includes parameterizable ControlListener instances for common interactions. Provided controls include drag controls for repositioning items (or groups of items), focus controls for updating focus and highlight settings in response to mouse actions, and navigation controls for panning and zooming, including both manual controls and speeddependent automatic zooming [EN 25].


[EN 40] Reingold, E.M. and J.S. Tilford, Tidier Drawings of Trees. IEEE Transactions of Software Engineering, 1981. SE-7: p. 21-28.

[EN 48] Yee, K.-P., D. Fisher, R. Dhamija, and M.A. Hearst. Animated Exploration of Dynamic Graphs with Radial Layout. InfoVis'01. pp. 43-50 2001.

[EN 10] Bruls, M., K. Huizing, and J.J. van Wijk. Squarified TreeMaps. In Proceedings of Joint Eurographics and IEEE TCVG Symp. on Visualization (TCVG 2000): IEEE Press. pp. 33-42, 2000.

[EN 44] Treemaps for Space-Constrained Visualization of Hierarchies. 1998. http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/treemap-history/

[EN 43] Sarkar, M. and M.H. Brown. Graphical Fisheye Views of Graphs. CHI’92. pp. 83-91, May 1992.

[EN 32] Leung, Y.K. and M.D. Apperley, A Review and Taxonomy of Distortion-Oriented Presentation Techniques. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 1994. 1(2): p. 126-160.

[EN 2] Barnes, J. and P. Hut, A Hierarchical O(N Log N) Force Calculation Algorithm. Nature, 1986. 324(4).

[EN 36] Myers, B.A., A New Model for Handling Input. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 1990. 8(3): p. 289-320.

[EN 25] Igarashi, T. and K. Hinckley. Speed-Dependent Automatic Zooming for Browsing Large Documents. UIST’00. pp. 139-148, 2000.

Anmerkungen

continued from previous page.

Also see Nm/Fragment 183 25 where the source is mentioned.

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Colour Maps. [...] These maps can be configured directly, or automatically generated by analyzing attribute values.

Integrated Search. Prefuse also supports efficient keyword search in large data sets. This component builds a tree (Prefix tree) of requested data attributes, enabling searches that run in time proportional to the size of the query string. Search results matching a given query are then available for visualization as a FocusSet in the ItemRegistry’s FocusManager.

Event Logging. Prefuse also provides facilities for logging. It is bundled with an event logger for monitoring and recording both user interfacing events and internal events. These Recorded logs can also be used to review or replay a session. Prefuse also has synchronized the event logger with the output of an eye-tracker, enabling playback sessions annotated with subjects’ fixation points.

Color Maps. [...] These maps can be configured directly, [...] or automatically generated by analyzing attribute values.

Integrated Search. [...] the toolkit includes a FocusSet implementation to support efficient keyword search of large data sets. This component builds a trie (prefix tree) of requested data attributes, enabling searches that run in time proportional to the size of the query string. Search results matching a given query are then available for visualization as a FocusSet in the ItemRegistry’s FocusManager.

Event Logging. prefuse includes an event logger for monitoring and recording events. This includes both user interface events (mouse movement, focus selection) and internal system events (addition and deletion of items from the registry). [...] Recorded logs can be used to review or replay a session. We have even synchronized the event logger with the output of an eye-tracker, enabling us to playback sessions annotated with subjects’ fixation points.

Anmerkungen

continued from previous page

Also see Nm/Fragment 183 25 where the source is mentioned.

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In this Section we discussed Prefuse (which we have used a tool for visualization purpose of this study), a user interface toolkit for crafting interactive visualizations of structured and unstructured data. The Prefuse supports the design of 2D visualizations of any data consisting of discrete data entities, such as graphs, trees, scatter plots, collections, and timelines. The Prefuse implements existing theoretical models of information visualization to provide a flexible framework for simplifying application design and enabling reuse and composition of visualization and interaction techniques. In particular, Prefuse contributes scalable abstractions for filtering abstract data into visual content and using lists of composable actions to manipulate data in aggregate.

The prototype constructed in the research study using the Prefuse toolkit demonstrates the flexibility and performance of the Prefuse architecture.

In this paper we have introduced prefuse, a user interface toolkit for crafting interactive visualizations of structured and unstructured data. prefuse supports the design of 2D visualizations of any data consisting of discrete data entities, such as graphs, trees, scatter plots, collections, and timelines. prefuse implements existing theoretical models of information visualization to provide a flexible framework for simplifying application design and enabling reuse and composition of visualization and interaction techniques. In particular, prefuse contributes scalable abstractions for filtering abstract data into visual content and using lists of composable actions to manipulate data in aggregate.

Applications built with the toolkit demonstrate the flexibility and performance of the prefuse architecture.

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[The Prefuse is] part of a larger move to systematize information visualization research and bring more interactivity into data analysis and exploration.

The Prefuse is open-source software. The toolkit, source code, and both interactive and video demonstrations are available at http://Prefuse.sourceforge.net.

prefuse is part of a larger move to systematize information visualization research and bring more interactivity into data analysis and exploration.

prefuse is open-source software. The toolkit, source code, and both interactive and video demonstrations are available at http://prefuse.sourceforge.net.

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this section concludes both the take-over and the original paper.

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