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 Autor Vito Latora, Massimo Marchiori Titel How the science of complex networks can help developing strategies against terrorism Zeitschrift Chaos, Solitons and Fractals Verlag Elsevier Jahr 2004 Nummer 20 Seiten 69-75 DOI 10.1016/S0960-0779(03)00429-6 URL http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.59.3998&rep=rep1&type=pdf Literaturverz. yes Fußnoten yes Fragmente 2

Fragmente der Quelle:
 Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-08-05 01:46:48 Hindemith

 Typus BauernOpfer Bearbeiter Graf Isolan Gesichtet
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 118, Zeilen: 8, 12-25
Quelle: Latora and Marchiori 2004
Seite(n): 70, Zeilen: 4, 9-10, 18-19, 23-24, 27-31
3.6.1 The Efficiency of a Network

[...] (Latora and Marchiori, 2004). The network efficiency E(G) is a measure to quantify how efficiently the nodes of a network exchange information. To define efficiency of a network G, first we calculate the shortest path lengths $d_{ij}$ between the ith and the jth nodes. Let us now suppose that every node sends information along the network, through its links. The efficiency in the communication between the ith node and the jth node is inversely proportional to the shortest distance: when there is no path in the graph between the ith and the jth nodes, we get $d_{ij}= + \infty$ and efficiency becomes zero. Let N be known as the size of the network or the numbers of nodes in the graph, the average efficiency of the graph (network) of G can be defined as:

$C_{eff}=E(G)=\frac{1}{N(N-1)}\sum_{i\ne j \in G} \frac{1}{d_{ij} }\quad {\mathbf (6)}$

The above formula gives a value of $C_{eff} E$ in the interval of [0, 1].

2. The efficiency of a network

[...]

The network efficiency E, is a measure introduced in Refs. [5,6] to quantify how efficiently the nodes of the network exchange information.

[...]

To define the efficiency of G first we have to calculate the shortest path lengths $\{d_{ij}\}$ between two generic points i and j.

[...]

Let us now suppose that every vertex sends information along the network, through its edges. We assume that the efficiency $\epsilon_{ij}$ in the communication between vertex i and j is inversely proportional to the shortest distance: [...] when there is no path in the graph between i and j we get $d_{ij}= + \infty$ consistently $\epsilon_{ij}=0.$ Consequently the average efficiency of the graph G can be defined as [12]:

$E({\mathbf G})=\frac{\sum_{i\ne j \in G}\epsilon_{ij} }{N(N-1)}=\frac{1}{N(N-1)}\sum_{i\ne j \in G} \frac{1}{d_{ij} }.\quad {(1)}$

Such a formula (1) gives a value of E that can vary in the range $[0,\infty [$,

[...]

 Anmerkungen Though the source is given, there is no hint that the text following the reference is taken nearly word-for-word from the source (with some shortening). Also, it makes no sense to speak of the "ith" and "jth" node as there is no linear order on a graph. The nodes are just referred to as "i" and "j", as in the source. At the end, Nm produces a mathematical mistake by leaving out too much. Sichter (Graf Isolan), WiseWoman

 Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-05-01 09:29:56 Hindemith

 Typus Verschleierung Bearbeiter Graf Isolan Gesichtet
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 165, Zeilen: 1, 3-6
Quelle: Latora and Marchiori 2004
Seite(n): 73, Zeilen: 16, 17-18
In this case study we consider the connections network of terrorists involved in the Bali Night Club Bombing and their directed or undirected relationships with other entities. Of course mapping networks after an event is relatively easy, while the real problem in this case is to map the covert networks to prevent terrorist activity, a task that can be more difficult. As a second example we consider the connections network of the hijackers and related terrorists of the September 2001 attacks. Of course mapping networks after an event is relatively easy, while the real problem in this case is to map covert networks to prevent criminal activity, a task that can be much more difficult.
 Anmerkungen Nearly identical at the end but nothing is marked as a citation; the reference is not given. Sichter (Graf Isolan), Bummelchen