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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Vincent Lemieux
Titel    Criminal Networks
Ort    Ottawa
Jahr    2003
ISBN    0-662-67645-9
URL    http://cpc.phippsinc.com/cpclib/pdf/56312e.pdf

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    4


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Nm/Fragment 069 06 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-21 22:39:51 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Lemieux 2003, Nm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Quelle: Lemieux_2003
Seite(n): 5, Zeilen: 16-19
Some authors, particularly Sparrow (1991), Coles (2001), Klerks (2001) and Williams (2001) have identified a certain number of characteristics of criminal networks but these characteristics are either very general, for social networks, or much more specific for criminal networks. The main characteristics are presented below: Some authors, particularly Sparrow (1991), Coles (2001), Klerks (2001) and Williams (2001), have identified a certain number of characteristics of criminal networks and have demonstrated how they can be analyzed. These characteristics are either very general, for social networks, or much more specific for criminal networks. We will present the main characteristics, [...]
Anmerkungen

Some adjustments, but all content including four literature references can also be found in the source, which is not referenced.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[2.] Nm/Fragment 074 08 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-21 22:39:55 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Lemieux 2003, Nm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 74, Zeilen: 8-30
Quelle: Lemieux_2003
Seite(n): 6, 12, Zeilen: page 6: 1-2, 9-17 ; page 12: 2-5
2.9.8 Size of Networks

Size is a fundamental characteristic of networks. It determines many other characteristics including link density, commonly called as density of the network.

Generally, density is higher in a small network than in a large one. It is because in a large network, a large proportion of connections between participants are indirect.

This is the case for transnational criminal networks, which were specifically studied by Williams and his collaborators (Williams, 2001; Williams and Godson, 2002). Williams states that these networks can be considered to be composed of strategic alliances between national networks, e.g., the Columbian drug trade network and the Sicilian drug distribution network.

There are also large networks within a single country. Generally, they are made up of subset of the main networks among which there are loose couplings through weak ties, particularly important in criminal networks.

2.9.9 Redundancy in Networks

The link density of a network increases, if several actors or ties must be removed to break it into unconnected pieces making it more redundant. As stated by Williams (2001) “…redundancy enables members of the network to take over tasks and responsibilities from those who have been arrested, incarcerated, or [killed by law enforcement.”]

Size of the Networks

Size is a fundamental characteristic of networks, in that it determines many other characteristics, particularly the density of the networks.

[...]

Generally, density is higher in a small network than in a large one, meaning that, in a large network, a large proportion of connections between participants are indirect.

This is the case for transnational criminal networks, which were specifically studied by Williams and his collaborators (Williams, 2001; Williams and Godson, 2002). Williams states that these networks can be considered to be composed of strategic alliances between national networks, e.g., the Columbian drug trade network and the Sicilian drug distribution network.

There are also large networks within a single country. Generally, they are made up of subnetworks between which there are loose couplings through weak ties, particularly important in criminal networks.

[...][Page 12]

A network is even more redundant and, thus, denser, if several actors or ties must be removed to break it into pieces that are not connected. As stated by Williams (p. 81) “ … redundancy enables members of the network to take over tasks and responsibilities from those who have been arrested, incarcerated, or killed by law enforcement.”

Anmerkungen

Minor Adjustments. The source is not given anywhere in the thesis.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[3.] Nm/Fragment 246 08 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-21 22:39:47 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Lemieux 2003, Nm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Quelle: Lemieux_2003
Seite(n): 12-13, Zeilen: 12ff; 1ff
[... the following roles in terrorist networks as proposed by Williams (2001):]

1) Organizers are the core ensuring a network’s direction. They are the people who determine the scale and scope of activities, as well as the guidance and motivation necessary for performing those actions.

2) Insulators are individuals or groups charged with insulating a core member from dangers posed by infiltration and cooperation situations to which it is exposed. These actors communicate commands or direction from a core member to a foot-soldier. They also ensure that the flow of communication from a foot soldier in no way compromises a core member.

3) Communicators are individuals who guarantee that message flows effectively from one actor to another throughout the network. Unlike insulators, communicators must collect response regarding directives that they transmit to other actors in a network. Williams claims that there can be conflicts between those who act as insulators and those who act as communicators, or that the same individuals may assume both roles simultaneously to avoid these conflicts.

4) Guardians guarantee network security and take essential measures to diminish its vulnerability to infiltrations or external attack.

Williams (2001: 82-84) proposes the identification of a certain number of roles [...]

1) The organizers are the core ensuring the network’s direction. It is they who determine the scale and scope of activities, as well as the guidance and impetus necessary for performing those activities.

2) Insulators are the individuals or groups charged with insulating the core from the danger posed by the infiltration and compromise to which it is exposed. These actors transmit directives or guidance from the core to the periphery. They also ensure that the flow of communication from the periphery in no way compromises the core.

3) Communicators are individuals who ensure that communication flows effectively

[Page 13]

from one actor to another throughout the network. Unlike the insulators, they must gather feedback regarding directives that they transmit to other actors in the network. Williams claims that there can be conflicts between those who act as insulators and those who act as communicators, or that the same individuals may assume both roles simultaneously to avoid these conflicts.

4) Guardians ensure network security and take necessary measures to minimize its vulnerability to infiltrations or external attack.

Anmerkungen

Williams (2001) is given as source, but this reference as well as many formulations are taken from Lemieux (2003) without reference.

In particular the sentence starting "Williams claims ..." is word by word taken from the source, which demonstrates that the text has been taken from Lemieux (2003) and not Williams (2001).

Sichter
(Hindemith), Bummelchen

[4.] Nm/Fragment 247 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-21 22:39:42 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Lemieux 2003, Nm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
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Quelle: Lemieux_2003
Seite(n): 13, Zeilen: 7ff
[Their role also consists in watching over recruitment to a] network and ensuring the loyalty of recruits through a variety of procedural promises and hidden pressure directed against new members and their families. Guardians pursue to avoid defections from the network actors and to reduce losses when defections occur.

5) Extenders extend the network by recruiting new members and also by negotiating association with other networks and encouraging association with the business sector, government and justice. Various strategies are used to this end. They range from unpaid recruitment through corruption and bribery to involuntary recruitment through pressure, infrequently supported by encouragements and prizes.

6) Monitors are devoted to the network’s usefulness their tasks consist in providing information to organizers regarding flaws and hitches within the network so that the organizers can decide them. Monitors guarantee that the network is able to correct to new situations and keep the high degree of elasticity that is essential to avoid law enforcement.

7) Crossovers are part of a terrorist network, but continue to work in legal institutions, whether governmental, financial or commercial. As such, these individuals provide vital evidence and contribute to the guard of a network.

Their role also consists in watching over recruitment to the network and ensuring the loyalty of recruits through a variety of ritual oaths and latent coercion directed against new members and their families. Guardians seek to prevent defections from the network actors and to minimize damages when defections occur.

5) Extenders extend the network by recruiting new members and also by negotiating collaboration with other networks and encouraging collaboration with the business sector, government and justice. Various tactics are used to this end. They range from voluntary recruitment through bribery and corruption to involuntary recruitment through coercion, occasionally supported by incentives and rewards.

6) Monitors are dedicated to the network’s effectiveness their responsibilities consist in providing information to organizers regarding weaknesses and problems within the network so that the organizers can resolve them. Monitors ensure that the network is able to adjust to new circumstances and maintain the high degree of flexibility that is necessary to circumvent law enforcement.

7) Crossovers are part of a criminal network, but continue to work in legal institutions, whether governmental, financial or commercial. As such, these individuals provide invaluable information and contribute to the protection of the network.

Anmerkungen

Refer also to the previous page: Nm/Fragment_246_08. No source is given

Sichter
(Hindemith), Bummelchen

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