The network structure is not unique to this group but characterizes many other terrorist groups and many of the new transnational organized crime groups. Unlike the top-down-hierarchical structure of a mafia-type organization, newer organized crime groups such as Russian-speaking groups and terrorist groups such as the Al Qaeda function as networks. It gives organizational flexibility, reduces the possibility of penetration and provides greater efficiency. These structures make it more difficult to identify leaders. The newer criminal groups and leading terrorist [organizations resemble more modern legitimate business structures than the older corporations like Ford and the steel industry.]
Such a network structure is not unique, indeed it characterizes many other terrorist groups and many of the new international organized crime groups. Unlike the top-down-hierarchical structure of traditional mafia-type organizations, organized crime groups such as the Colombian drug cartels and Russian-speaking organized crime function as loosely-organized networks of cells. The cells give organizational flexibility, reduce the possibility of law-enforcement penetration, and provide greater efficiency. Network structures also make it more difficult to identify leaders while reducing the size of the leadership within each organization. As such, modern organized criminal groups and leading terrorist organizations resemble modern, “flat” business structures rather than the multilayer organization found in older corporations such as the Ford Motor Company and the steel industry (Williams, 1998).
Some work by Shelley from 2002 is given as a reference on line 5 of this page, although it is not clear that the passage at hand is supposed to be a citation from this work. Furthermore, there is no work listed in the bibliography where Shelley is the first author.
International organized crime groups and terrorists both employ specialists for specific purposes. These specialists conduct intelligence operations and target surveillance, move money, or perform information technology or communications specific. The most successful of these groups have educated specialists within their ranks while others contract out for these services. Their hiring is on contractual basis, they may know accomplices or may be [hired through intermediaries, unaware of the end goals and who the end users of their services are.]
International organized crime groups and terrorists both employ specialists. These specialists conduct intelligence operations, move money, and are experts in information technology and communications. The most successful of these groups have had some of those within their ranks educated to become specialists; others contracted out for these services. The specialists who are hired on a contractual basis can be knowing accomplices, or they can be hired through intermediaries and be unaware who the end users of their services are.
Quelle: Shelley Picarelli 2002 Seite(n): 314-315, Zeilen: p.314,38-41 and p.315,1-2
Criminals and terrorists both engage in illicit activities. Money is the main motivation for transnational criminals; whereas for terrorists, this ordinary criminal activity is supported by their larger political and ideological objectives. Yet the crimes committed by both of the groups differ only in motive and not in substance.
International organized crime groups and terrorist groups both engage in illicit activity. The criminals involved in organized crime to this solely to make money. For terrorists, ordinary criminal activity is the way to support their larger political and ideological objectives.[...]
[...] Yet, while the crimes committed by these two groups don’t differ in substance, they differ in motive.
The collage continues, but the source is still not mentioned.