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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Jennifer Xu, Hsinchun Chen
Titel    Untangling Criminal Networks: A Case Study
Sammlung    Intelligence and Security Informatics First NSF/NIJ Symposium, ISI 2003, Tucson, AZ, USA, June 2–3, 2003 Proceedings
Herausgeber    Chen, H et al.
Ort    Berlin, Heidelberg
Verlag    Springer-Verlag
Jahr    2003
Nummer    2665
Seiten    232-248
Reihe    Lecture Notes in Computer Science
DOI    10.1007/3-540-44853-5_18
URL    http://www.springerlink.com/content/4rn8l185w0rvl931/

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    6


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Nm/Fragment 019 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-05-01 19:49:00 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Nm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Xu and Chen 2003

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I. INTRODUCTION [FN 1]

1.1. OVERVIEW

Terrorists seldom operate in vacuum but interact with one another to carry out terrorist activities. To perform terrorist activities requires collaboration among terrorists. Relationship between individual terrorists for the basis of terrorism and are essential for the smooth operation of a terrorist organization, which can be viewed as network consisting of nodes [FN 2] (for example terrorists, terrorist camps, supporting countries, etc.) and links [FN 3] / ties (relationships). In terrorist networks, there may present some groups/ or cells, within which members have close relationships. One group may also interact with other groups. For example, some key nodes (key players) may act as leaders to control activities of a group. Some others may serve as gatekeepers to ensure smooth flow of information or illicit goods.

[FN 1] Parts of this chapter are already published in Memon N., Hicks David L., and Larsen Henrik Legind. (2007d) Memon N. Lasen H.L. (2006a) (2006b) (2006c);

[FN 2] In this dissertation the words: nodes, actors, players, and vertices are used interchangeably

[FN 3] In this dissertation the words: links, ties, relationships, and edges are used interchangeably

1 Introduction

Criminals seldom operate in a vacuum but interact with one another to carry out various illegal activities. In particular, organized crimes [...] require collaboration among offenders. Relationships between individual offenders form the basis for organized crimes [18] and are essential for smooth operation of a criminal enterprise, which can be viewed as a network consisting of nodes (individual offenders) and links (relationships). In criminal networks, there may exist groups or teams, within which members have close relationships. One group also may interact with other groups [...]. For example, some key members may act as leaders to control activities of a group. Some others may serve as gatekeepers to ensure smooth flow of information or illicit goods.

Anmerkungen

Take somebody else's introduction, shorten it slightly, cross out "criminals" and "offenders" and put "terrorists" instead. That way Nm's introduction was made. (There is no reference to Xu and Chen (2003))

The whole page will be repeated more or less on page 93 of the thesis: Nm/Fragment_093_04

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[2.] Nm/Fragment 020 26 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-06 15:26:09 Klgn
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It is very important to understand the structural network patterns in terms of subgroups and individual roles in order to understand the organization and operation of terrorist organizations. Such type of knowledge can be very helpful for law enforcement and intelligence agencies to disrupt terrorist networks and develop effective control strategies to fight war against terrorism. For example, arrest of central members in a network may affect the operation of a network and put a [terrorist organization out of action (Baker, W. E., Faulkner R. R., 1993; McAndrew, D., 1999; Sparrow, M. K., 1991).] [p. 232]

Structural network patterns in terms of subgroups, between-group interactions, and individual roles thus are important to understanding the organization, structure, and operation of criminal enterprises. Such knowledge can help law enforcement and intelligence agencies disrupt criminal networks and develop effective control strategies to combat organized crimes such as narcotic trafficking and terrorism. For exam-

[p. 233]

ple, removal of central members in a network may effectively upset the operational network and put a criminal enterprise out of action [3, 17, 21].

[EN 3] Baker, W. E., Faulkner R. R.: The social organization of conspiracy: illegal networks in the heavy electrical equipment industry. American Sociological Review, Vol. 58, No. 12. (1993) 837–860.

[EN 17] McAndrew, D.: The structural analysis of criminal networks. In: Canter, D., Alison, L. (eds.): The Social Psychology of Crime: Groups, Teams, and Networks, Offender Profiling Series, III, Aldershot, Dartmouth (1999) 53–94.

[EN 21] Sparrow, M. K.: The application of network analysis to criminal intelligence: An assessment of the prospects. Social Networks, Vol. 13. (1991) 251–274.

Anmerkungen

Nm again takes the original source and rewrites it with respect to terrorists using the structure, a number of longer phrases and the original references.

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[3.] Nm/Fragment 021 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-23 22:47:14 Fiesh
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[For example, arrest of central members in a network may affect the operation of a network and put a] terrorist organization out of action (Baker, W. E., Faulkner R. R., 1993; McAndrew, D., 1999; Sparrow, M. K., 1991). Subgroups and interaction patterns between groups are helpful in detecting overall structure of a network (Evan, W. M., 1972; Ronfeldt, D., Arquilla, J., 2001). [For exam]ple, removal of central members in a network may effectively upset the operational network and put a criminal enterprise out of action [3, 17, 21]. Subgroups and interaction patterns between groups are helpful for finding a network’s overall structure, which often reveals points of vulnerability [9, 19].

[EN 3] Baker, W. E., Faulkner R. R.: The social organization of conspiracy: illegal networks in the heavy electrical equipment industry. American Sociological Review, Vol. 58, No. 12. (1993) 837–860.

[EN 17] McAndrew, D.: The structural analysis of criminal networks. In: Canter, D., Alison, L. (eds.): The Social Psychology of Crime: Groups, Teams, and Networks, Offender Profiling Series, III, Aldershot, Dartmouth (1999) 53–94.

[EN 21] Sparrow, M. K.: The application of network analysis to criminal intelligence: An assessment of the prospects. Social Networks, Vol. 13. (1991) 251–274.

[EN 9] Evan, W. M.: An organization-set model of interorganizational relations. In: M. Tuite, R. Chisholm, M. Radnor (eds.): Interorganizational Decision-making. Aldine, Chicago (1972) 181–200.

[EN 19] Ronfeldt, D., Arquilla, J.: What next for networks and netwars? In: Arquilla, J., Ronfeldt, D. (eds.): Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy. Rand Press, (2001).

Anmerkungen

Content, references and a number of formulations are identical though the source refers to criminals, Nm to terrorists. This section also appears at Nm/Fragment 095 01.

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[4.] Nm/Fragment 093 04 - Diskussion
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Terrorists seldom operate in a vacuum but interact with one another to carry out terrorist activities. To perform terrorist activities requires collaboration among terrorists. Relationships between individual terrorists for the basis of terrorism are essential for the smooth operation of a terrorist organization, which can be viewed as a network consisting of nodes (for example terrorists, terrorist camps, supporting countries, etc.) and links (for example, communicates with, or trained at, etc.). In terrorist networks, groups or cells, within which members have close relationships, may be present. One group may also interact with other groups. For example, some key nodes (key players) may act as leaders to control activities of a group. Some others may serve as gatekeepers to ensure smooth flow of information or illicit goods. Criminals seldom operate in a vacuum but interact with one another to carry out various illegal activities. In particular, organized crimes such as terrorism, [...] require collaboration among offenders. Relationships between individual offenders form the basis for organized crimes [18] and are essential for smooth operation of a criminal enterprise, which can be viewed as a network consisting of nodes (individual offenders) and links (relationships). In criminal networks, there may exist groups or teams, within which members

have close relationships. One group also may interact with other groups [...]. For example, some key members may act as leaders to control activities of a group. Some others may serve as gatekeepers to ensure smooth flow of information or illicit goods.

Anmerkungen

"Criminals" become "Terrorists", and a few more adaptations. The original source is not referenced.

Note that the very same paragraph can also be found at the beginning of the thesis: Nm/Fragment_019_01

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[5.] Nm/Fragment 094 28 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-23 11:18:31 Hindemith
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Structural network patterns in terms of subgroups and individual roles are important in understanding the organization and operation of terrorist networks. Such knowledge can help law enforcement and intelligence agencies to disrupt terrorist networks and develop effective control [strategies to combat terrorism.] Structural network patterns in terms of subgroups, between-group interactions, and individual roles thus are important to understanding the organization, structure, and operation of criminal enterprises. Such knowledge can help law enforcement and intelligence agencies disrupt criminal networks and develop effective control strategies to combat organized crimes such as narcotic trafficking and terrorism.
Anmerkungen

nothing marked as a citation, no reference given

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[6.] Nm/Fragment 095 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-23 22:46:00 Fiesh
Fragment, Gesichtet, Nm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Xu and Chen 2003

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For example, capture of central members in a network may effectively upset the operational network and put a terrorist organization out of action (Baker, W.E. and Faulkner, R.R., 1993; McAndrew, D., 1999; Sparrow, M., 1991). Subgroups and interaction patterns between groups are helpful in finding a network’s overall structure, which often reveals points of vulnerability (Evan, W. M., 1972; Ronfeldt, D., Arquilla, J., 2001 ). [For exam]ple, removal of central members in a network may effectively upset the operational network and put a criminal enterprise out of action [3, 17, 21]. Subgroups and interaction patterns between groups are helpful for finding a network’s overall structure, which often reveals points of vulnerability [9, 19].

[EN 3] Baker, W. E., Faulkner R. R.: The social organization of conspiracy: illegal networks in the heavy electrical equipment industry. American Sociological Review, Vol. 58, No. 12. (1993) 837–860.

[EN 17] McAndrew, D.: The structural analysis of criminal networks. In: Canter, D., Alison, L. (eds.): The Social Psychology of Crime: Groups, Teams, and Networks, Offender Profiling Series, III, Aldershot, Dartmouth (1999) 53–94.

[EN 21] Sparrow, M. K.: The application of network analysis to criminal intelligence: An assessment of the prospects. Social Networks, Vol. 13. (1991) 251–274.

[EN 9] Evan, W. M.: An organization-set model of interorganizational relations. In: M. Tuite, R. Chisholm, M. Radnor (eds.): Interorganizational Decision-making. Aldine, Chicago (1972) 181–200.

[EN 19] Ronfeldt, D., Arquilla, J.: What next for networks and netwars? In: Arquilla, J., Ronfeldt, D. (eds.): Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy. Rand Press, (2001).

Anmerkungen

Continuation from previous page.

This section appears in Nm's thesis for the second time, the first time was here: Nm/Fragment 021 01

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