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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     John Arquilla, David Ronfeldt
Titel    Networks and Netwars: The future of crime, terror, and militancy
Ort    Santa Monica
Verlag    RAND
Jahr    2001
ISBN    0-8330-3030-2
URL    Google Books, also: chapter 3 and complete

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    1


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Nm2/Fragment 431 27 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-11 23:27:41 Schumann
Arquilla Ronfeldt 2001, BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Nm2, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 431, Zeilen: 27-44
Quelle: Arquilla Ronfeldt 2001
Seite(n): 7, 8, 9, Zeilen: 7: 24ff; 8: 1ff; 9: 4ff
Networks come in basically three types [9]:

(1) The chain network, as in a smuggling chain, where people, goods, or information move along a line of separated contacts and where end-to-end communication must travel through the intermediate nodes. (2) The star, hub, or wheel network, as in a terrorist syndicate or a cartel structure, where a set of actors is tied to a central node or actor and all must go through that node to communicate and coordinate with each other. (3) The all-channel network, as in a collaborative network of small militant groups, in which every group or node is connected to every other node.

Each type of network may be suited to different conditions and purposes, and there may be any number of hybrids. The all-channel network has historically been the most difficult to organize and sustain, partly because of the dense communications required. Yet the all-channel network is the type that is gaining strength from the information revolution. The design is flat. Ideally, there is no single, central leadership or command or headquarters—-no precise heart or head that can be targeted. Decision-making and operations are decentralized, allowing for local initiative and autonomy [10].


9. Arquilla, J., Ronfeldt, D.: Swarming and a Future of Conflict. RAND National Defense Institute (2001)

10. Hoffman, B.: Terrorism evolves Toward Netwar. RAND Review 22(2) (1999)

[page 7]

networks come in basically three types or topologies (see Figure 1.1):

  • The chain or line network, as in a smuggling chain where people, goods, or information move along a line of separated contacts, and where end-to-end communication must travel through the intermediate nodes.
  • The hub, star, or wheel network, as in a franchise or a cartel where a set of actors are tied to a central (but not hierarchical) node or actor, and must go through that node to communicate and coordinate with each other.

[page 8]

[FIGURE]

  • The all-channel or full-matrix network, as in a collaborative network of militant peace groups where everybody is connected to everybody else.

[...]

Each type may be suited to different conditions and purposes, [...] There may also be hybrids of the three types,[...]

[page 9]

Of the three network types, the all-channel has been the most difficult to organize and sustain, partly because it may require dense communications. But it is the type that gives the network form its new, high potential for collaborative undertakings and that is gaining new strength from the information revolution. [...] The organizational design is flat. Ideally, there is no single, central leadership, command, or headquarters—-no precise heart or head that can be targeted. [...] Decisionmaking and operations are decentralized, allowing for local initiative and autonomy.

Anmerkungen

The source is given at the beginning, but it is not clear to the reader that the source is being followed verbatim at times and also in one paragraph further down.

Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman

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