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Autor     Jennifer Xu, Hsinchun Chen
Titel    Untangling Criminal Networks: A Case Study
Sammlung    Intelligence and Security Informatics First NSF/NIJ Symposium, ISI 2003, Tucson, AZ, USA, June 2–3, 2003 Proceedings
Herausgeber    Chen, H et al.
Ort    Berlin, Heidelberg
Verlag    Springer
Jahr    2003
Nummer    2665
Seiten    232-248
Reihe    Lecture Notes in Computer Science
DOI    10.1007/3-540-44853-5_18
URL    http://www.springerlink.com/content/4rn8l185w0rvl931/

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    2


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Nm2/Fragment 430 17 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-11 23:19:06 Schumann
Fragment, Gesichtet, Nm2, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Xu and Chen 2003

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1 Introduction

Terrorists seldom operate in a vacuum but interact with one another to carry out terrorist activities. To perform terrorist activities requires collaboration among terrorists. Relationships between individual terrorists are essential for the smooth operation of a terrorist organization, which can be viewed as a network consisting of nodes (for example terrorists, terrorist camps, supporting countries, etc.) and links (for example, communicates with, or trained at, etc.). In terrorist networks, there may exist some group or cell, within which members have close relationships. One group may also interact with other groups. For example, some key nodes (key players) may act as leaders to control activities of a group, while others may serve as gatekeepers to ensure smooth flow of information or illicit goods.

1 Introduction

Criminals seldom operate in a vacuum but interact with one another to carry out various illegal activities. In particular, organized crimes such as terrorism, drug trafficking, gang-related offenses, frauds, and armed robberies require collaboration among offenders. Relationships between individual offenders form the basis for organized crimes [18] and are essential for smooth operation of a criminal enterprise, which can be viewed as a network consisting of nodes (individual offenders) and links (relationships). In criminal networks, there may exist groups or teams, within which members have close relationships. One group also may interact with other groups to obtain or transfer illicit goods. Moreover, individuals play different roles in their groups. For example, some key members may act as leaders to control activities of a group. Some others may serve as gatekeepers to ensure smooth flow of information or illicit goods.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned, although the beginning of the introduction of the paper is only a version of the introduction of the source, adapted from criminal networks to terrorist networks.

Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman

[2.] Nm2/Fragment 431 20 - Diskussion
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Fragment, Gesichtet, Nm2, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Xu and Chen 2003

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Structural network patterns in terms of subgroups and individual roles are important in understanding the organization and operation of terrorist networks. Such knowledge can help law enforcement and intelligence agencies to disrupt terrorist networks and develop effective control strategies to combat terrorism. For example, capture of central members in a network may effectively upset the operational network and put a terrorist organization out of action [4, 5, 6]. Subgroups and interaction patterns between groups are helpful in finding a network’s overall structure, which often reveals points of vulnerability [7, 8].

4. Baker, W.E., Faulkner, R.R.: The Social Organization of Conspiracy: Illegal Networks in the Heavy Electrical Equipment Industry. American Sociological Review 58(6), 837–860 (1993)

5. McAndrew, D.: The Structural Analysis of Criminal Networks. In: Canter, D., Alison, L. (eds.) The Social Psychology of Crime: Groups, Teams, and Networks, Aldershot, Dartmouth. Offender Profiling Series, III, pp. 53–94 (1999)

6. Sparrow, M.: The Application of Network Analysis to Criminal Intelligence: An Assessment of the Prospects. Social Networks 13, 251–274 (1991)

7. Evan, W.M.: An Organization-set Model of Inter-organizational Relations. In: Tuite, M., Chisholm, R., Radnor, M. (eds.) Inter-organizational Decision-making, Aldine, Chicago, pp. 181–200 (1972)

8. Ronfeldt, D., Arquilla, J.: What Next for Networks and Netwars? In: Arquilla, J., Ronfeldt, D. (eds.) Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy, Rand Press (2001)

Structural network patterns in terms of subgroups, between-group interactions, and individual roles thus are important to understanding the organization, structure, and operation of criminal enterprises. Such knowledge can help law enforcement and intelligence agencies disrupt criminal networks and develop effective control strategies to combat organized crimes such as narcotic trafficking and terrorism. For exam-

[page 233]

ple, removal of central members in a network may effectively upset the operational network and put a criminal enterprise out of action [3, 17, 21]. Subgroups and interaction patterns between groups are helpful for finding a network’s overall structure, which often reveals points of vulnerability [9, 19].


3. Baker, W. E., Faulkner R. R.: The social organization of conspiracy: illegal networks in the heavy electrical equipment industry. American Sociological Review, Vol. 58, No. 12. (1993) 837–860.

9. Evan, W. M.: An organization-set model of interorganizational relations. In: M. Tuite, R. Chisholm, M. Radnor (eds.): Interorganizational Decision-making. Aldine, Chicago (1972) 181–200.

17. McAndrew, D.: The structural analysis of criminal networks. In: Canter, D., Alison, L. (eds.): The Social Psychology of Crime: Groups, Teams, and Networks, Offender Profiling Series, III, Aldershot, Dartmouth (1999) 53–94.

19. Ronfeldt, D., Arquilla, J.: What next for networks and netwars? In: Arquilla, J., Ronfeldt, D. (eds.): Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy. Rand Press, (2001).

21. Sparrow, M. K.: The application of network analysis to criminal intelligence: An assessment of the prospects. Social Networks, Vol. 13. (1991) 251–274.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned anywhere in the paper.

The text has been adapted from criminal networks to terrorist networks and also five references to the literature have been copied.

Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman

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