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Titel    From Hariyali to Neeranchal: Report of the Technical Committee on Watershed Programmes in India
Herausgeber    Ministry of Rural Development -- Department of Land Resources
Ort    New Delhi
Datum    Januar 2006
URL    http://dolr.nic.in/ParthaCommittee/ParthaCommitteeReport.htm

Literaturverz.   

ja
Fußnoten    ja
Fragmente    4


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Analyse:Nmi/Fragment 024 06 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-10-03 21:24:52 Schumann
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, MoRD 2006, Nmi, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel

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Seite: 24, Zeilen: 6-16, 18-28
Quelle: MoRD 2006
Seite(n): 36, Zeilen: 8-17, 21-29
After independence, India relied on multi-purpose reservoirs for providing irrigation and generating hydro-electricity. To stabilize the catchments of reservoirs and to control siltation, a centrally sponsored scheme of „Soil Conservation Work in the Catchments of River Valley Projects‟ was launched in 1962-63. Another step in this direction was taken with the launching of Drought Prone Areas Program (DPAP) by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) in 1972-73. The objective of this program was to tackle the special problems of areas constantly affected by severe drought conditions. In 1977-78, the MoRD started a special program for hot desert areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana and cold desert areas of Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh (which were earlier under DPAP) called Desert Development Program (DDP)38. Together these projects covered an area of 96.1 million hectares spread over 20 States (Government of India, 2001).

The Ministry of Agriculture started a scheme of Integrated Watershed Management in the Catchments of Flood Prone Rivers (FPR) in 1980-81. During the 1980s, several successful experiences of fully treated watersheds, such as Sukhomajri in Haryana and Ralegaon Siddhi in Western Maharashtra, came to be reported. The Ministry of Agriculture then launched a scheme for propagation of water harvesting/conservation technology in rainfed areas in 19 identified locations in 1982-83. In October 1984, the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) adopted this approach in 22 other locations in rainfed areas. With experience gained from all these, the concept of integrated watershed development was first institutionalized with the launching of the „National Watershed Development Program of Rainfed Areas‟ (NWDPRA) in 1986-87, covering 99 districts in 16 states (Government of India/ MoRD, 2006).


38 See Joshi et. al. (2004)

After independence India relied on multi-purpose reservoirs for providing irrigation and generating hydro-electricity. To stabilize the catchments of reservoirs and to control siltation, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of “Soil Conservation Work in the Catchments of River Valley Projects (RVP)” was launched in 1962-63. The Ministry of Agriculture started a scheme of Integrated Watershed Management in the Catchments of Flood Prone Rivers (FPR) in 1980-81. During the 1980s, several successful experiences of fully treated watersheds, such as Sukhomajri in Haryana and Ralegaon Siddhi in Western Maharashtra, came to be reported. The Ministry of Agriculture launched a scheme for propagation of water harvesting/conservation technology in rainfed areas in 19 identified locations in 1982-83. In October 1984, the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) adopted this approach in 22 other locations in rainfed areas. [...]

With experience gained from all these, the concept of integrated watershed development was first institutionalised with the launching of the National Watershed Development Programme of Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) in 1990, covering 99 districts in 16 states. Meanwhile, conservation work was ongoing in the Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP) launched by MoRD in 1972-73. The objective of this programme was to tackle the special problems of areas constantly affected by severe drought conditions. In 1977-78, the MoRD started a special programme for hot desert areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana and cold desert areas of Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh (which were earlier under DPAP) called Desert Development Programme (DDP).

Anmerkungen

Die Quelle ist am Ende der Seite angegeben. Es wird aber nicht klar, das fast die gesamte Seite dieser Quelle weitgehend im Wortlaut folgt. Bei Joshi et al. (2004) findet sich der Wortlaut nicht.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[2.] Analyse:Nmi/Fragment 079 07 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-10-03 20:14:04 Hindemith
Fragment, KeineWertung, MoRD 2006, Nmi, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, ZuSichten

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Seite(n): 43, Zeilen: 5ff
A study of 6 watersheds (Sharda et. al. 2005)89 showed that the watershed program reduced soil loses by 52% and surface runoff by 58%. The overall productivity of the watershed measured through a Crop Productivity Index rose by 12 to 45% in treated watersheds. A review of 120 selected households in four watershed projects in Gujarat (Shah, 2000) found that after 4 years of implementation, irrigated area almost doubled in all the projects, reaching about 18% of the land held by the beneficiary households. Cropping intensity also showed a rise. Around 87% of the households reported that their drinking water availability increased. About 71% of the landless reported better availability of employment opportunities in the post-project period. The value of the stream of benefits from the project over a 15-year period is estimated at Rs. 10.48 lakhs with an initial investment of Rs. 2.57 lakhs, with an overall benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of 4.07 (Government of India/ MoRD, 2006: 43).

89 Cited from Government of India/ MoRD, (2006: 43).

A study of 6 IWDP watersheds (Sharda, Samra and Dogra, 2005) showed that various mechanical and biological measures could reduce surface runoff by 58%. Soil losses from watersheds were reduced by 52%. The study reports that the water storage capacity created was on an average 47,400 cubic metres per watershed, which increased the recharge rate by 20 to 53%. The overall productivity of the watershed measured through a Crop Productivity Index rose by 12 to 45% in treated watersheds. A review of 120 selected households in four watershed projects in Gujarat (Amita Shah, 2000) found that after 4 years of implementation, irrigated area almost doubled in all the projects, reaching about 18% of the land held by the beneficiary households. Cropping intensity also showed a rise. The total net return from all crops increased by 63%. Around 87% of the households reported that their drinking water availability increased. About 71% of the landless reported better availability of employment opportunities in the post-project period. The value of the stream of benefits from the project over a 15-year period is estimated at Rs. 10.48 lakhs with an initial investment of Rs. 2.57 lakhs, with an overall benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of 4.07.
Anmerkungen

Die Quelle ist angegeben, die wörtlichen Übernahmen sind aber nicht gekennzeichnet.

Sichter
(Hindemith)

[3.] Analyse:Nmi/Fragment 079 23 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-10-03 21:29:49 Schumann
Fragment, Gesichtet, MoRD 2006, Nmi, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 79, Zeilen: 23-28
Quelle: MoRD 2006
Seite(n): 43, 44, Zeilen: 43: 32-33 ; 44: 1-9
An impact study of five watersheds in Andhra Pradesh (Reddy and Ravindra, 2004) found that the overall BCR of watershed investment in 4 watersheds varied between 1.10 and 3.78. On this basis, they worked out that the investment payback period of a watershed project is 2 to 3 years. Another study by Chaturvedi (2005) notes that benefits occur because of an increase in cropped area, shifts in cropping pattern and improvements in crop productivity to due increased water availability. Lobo (1996) notes [an average rise of nearly 300% in the irrigated area and 50% in cropped area from his study on three watershed villages in Ahmednagar under the IGWDP.] A study of impacts in five watersheds in Andhra Pradesh by Watershed Support Services and Activities Network (WASSAN) (Reddy and Ravindra, 2004) found that the overall BCR of

[Seite 44]

watershed investment in four watersheds varied between 1.10 and 3.78. On the basis of this estimate, they worked out that the investment payback period of a watershed project is 2 to 3 years. A cost-benefit analysis of eight watersheds located in different parts of Gujarat has been conducted by Development Support Centre (DSC) (Chaturvedi, 2005). The study comes out with rather high BCR figures in the range of 4.06 to 15.72. The study notes that benefits occur because of increase in cropped area, shifts in cropping pattern and improvements in crop productivity due to watershed treatment. Crispino Lobo (1996) presents a study of 3 watersheds under the IGWDP in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. An average rise of nearly 300% in the irrigated area and 50% in cropped area was recorded post-intervention.

Anmerkungen

Die Quelle ist hier nicht angegeben, obwohl die Übersicht der verschiedenen Studien aus ihr stammt, z.T. im Wortlaut.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[4.] Analyse:Nmi/Fragment 080 03 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-10-03 21:17:33 Schumann
Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, MoRD 2006, Nmi, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel

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Quelle: MoRD 2006
Seite(n): 44, 45, Zeilen: 44: 10-13, 24-31 ; 45: 1-7
A comparative study of 16 villages in the drought-affected districts of Gujarat showed that the watershed villages were better placed compared to non-watershed villages in terms of water and biomass availability, employment opportunities and out-migration (Shah, 2000). MoRD conducted a comprehensive evaluation of watershed programs in 16 states covering 221 districts in 2001. A compilation of the results of this study (TERI, 2004) reports overall improvement in land use, increase in net sown and gross cropped area, expansion in irrigated area, greater fuel-wood and fodder availability, higher incomes and employment opportunities from the majority of states. Perhaps the most comprehensive summary of the benefits of watershed programs in India is provided by ICRISAT‟s (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics) „meta-analysis‟ of the impact of watershed programs (Joshi et al, 2005). It is based on an exhaustive review of 311 case studies.

The study found that in treated watersheds:

  • soil loss (51 studies) reduced by 0.82 tonnes/ha/year;
  • rate of runoff (36 studies) reduced by 13%;
  • irrigated area (97 studies) increased by 34%;
  • cropping intensity (115 studies) went up by 64%; and
  • Additional employment (39 studies) of 182 person-days/ha/year has been created and in some cases, it went up to 900 person-days/ha/year.
An initial survey of 16 villages (8 watershed and 8 non-watershed) in drought-affected districts of Gujarat showed that the watershed villages were better placed compared to non-watershed villages in terms of water and biomass availability, employment opportunities and out-migration (Anil Shah, 2000). [...]

MoRD conducted a comprehensive evaluation of watershed programmes in 16 states covering 221 districts in 2001. A compilation of the results of this study (TERI, 2004) reports overall improvement in land use, increase in net sown and gross cropped area, expansion in irrigated area, greater fuelwood and fodder availability, higher incomes and employment opportunities from the majority of states. Perhaps the most comprehensive summary of the benefits of watershed programmes in India is provided by ICRISAT’s (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics) ‘meta-analysis’ of the impact of watershed programmes (Joshi et al, 2005). It is based on an exhaustive review of 311 case studies.

[Seite 45]

The study found that in treated watersheds:

  • soil loss (51 studies) reduced by 0.82 tonnes/ha/year;
  • rate of runoff (36 studies) reduced by 13%;
  • irrigated area (97 studies) increased by 34%;
  • cropping intensity (115 studies) went up by 64%; and
  • additional employment (39 studies) of 182 persondays/ha/year has been created

and in some cases, it went up to 900 persondays/ha/year.

Anmerkungen

Die Quelle ist nicht genannt.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

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