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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     V. Delcenserie, D. Martel, M. Lamoureux, J. Amiot, Y. Boutin, and D. Roy
Titel    Immunomodulatory Effects of Probiotics in the Intestinal Tract
Zeitschrift    Curr. Issues Mol. Biol.
Verlag    Horizon Scientific Press
Ausgabe    10
Jahr    2008
Seiten    37-54
Anmerkung    PMID: 18525105
URL    http://www.horizonpress.com/cimb/v/v10/05.pdf

Literaturverz.   

ja
Fußnoten    ja
Fragmente    6


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Ntx/Fragment 002 21 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-10-21 16:14:13 Singulus
Delcenserie et al 2008, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Ntx, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Lymphocytes (B and T) are the essential players in the adaptive immune response. The adaptive immune response takes longer to develop than the innate immune response. Specificity and memory are the distinguishing characteristics of the adaptive immune response. The adaptive immune system can provide a more effective protection against pathogens through their ability to recognize and remember an impressive number of antigens. Memory B and T cells provide the host with the ability to mount much more effective immune responses against secondary infections. Lymphocytes have specific antigen receptors (BCR on B cells and TCR on T cells) created by genetic rearrangements of variable areas during lymphocyte ontogeny. Thus, each naive lymphocyte has an antigen receptor with a unique specificity. They build a repertoire of polyclonal lymphocytes able to respond to a multitude of antigens. B cells contribute to the immune response by secreting antibodies [(humoral immunity), whereas T cells act primarily in cell-mediated immunity.] Lymphocytes (B and T) are the essential players in the adaptive immune response. The adaptive immune response takes longer to develop than the innate immune response. Specificity and memory are the distinguishing characteristics of the adaptive immune response. The adaptive immune system can provide a more effective protection against pathogens through their ability to recognize and remember an impressive number of antigens. Memory B and T cells provide the host the ability to mount much more effective immune responses against secondary infections. Lymphocytes have specific antigen receptors (BCR for B cells and TCR for T cells) created by genetic rearrangements of variable areas during lymphocyte ontogeny. Thus, each naive lymphocyte has an antigen receptor with a unique specificity. They build a repertoire of polyclonal lymphocytes able to respond to a multitude of antigens.

B cells contribute to the immune response by secreting antibodies (humoral immunity), whereas T cells act primarily in cell-mediated immunity.

Anmerkungen

Art und Umfang der Übernahme bleiben ungekennzeichnet. The source is mentioned on p. 11 f.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02

[2.] Ntx/Fragment 003 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-10-21 16:28:08 Singulus
Delcenserie et al 2008, Fragment, Gesichtet, Ntx, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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[B cells contribute to the immune response by secreting antibodies] (humoral immunity), whereas T cells act primarily in cell-mediated immunity. T cells can be subdivided into T helper cells (CD4+, T cells expressing CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells) and T cytotoxic cells (CD8+, T cells expressing CD8 are CD8+ T cells ) (Dent and Kaplan 2008; Konig et al 2002).

[Figure A: Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells.]

B cells recognize their antigens via their BCR. T cells cannot recognize the antigen without some assistance. The antigenic determinant must be presented by an appropriate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. Thus, they recognize their antigens through their TCR in the form of an MHC/ peptide complex. CD8+ T cells “see” their antigens in the form of a peptide/MHC class I complex, whereas CD4+ T cells recognize their antigens as a peptide/MHC class II complex. MHC class I molecules are expressed at the surface of all nucleated cells, whereas MHC class II molecules are expressed only by professional antigenpresenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs) (Cruz, Jr. and Bergstresser 1990).

It is important to note that the cells of the innate immune system are critical to the initiation of the adaptive immune response. Thus, APC activation is the first step in the induction of adaptive immunity. DCs generally absorb antigens from the environment, and once they are activated (mostly by microbial compounds), they mature and migrate to the adjacent lymphoid tissue. To be activated, T cells must not only recognize their specific antigen in the form of a peptide/MHC complex, they also need a costimulation signal that is provided by the activated APCs (Joffre et al 2009).


Cruz,P.D., Jr., Bergstresser,P.R., 1990. Antigen processing and presentation by epidermal Langerhans cells. Induction of immunity or unresponsiveness. Dermatol. Clin. 8, 633-647.

Dent,A.L., Kaplan,M.H., 2008. T cell regulation of hematopoiesis. Front Biosci. 13, 6229-6236.

Joffre,O., Nolte,M.A., Sporri,R., Reis e Sousa, 2009. Inflammatory signals in dendritic cell activation and the induction of adaptive immunity. Immunol. Rev. 227, 234-247.

Konig,R., Shen,X., Maroto,R., Denning,T.L., 2002. The role of CD4 in regulating homeostasis of T helper cells. Immunol. Res. 25, 115-130.

B cells contribute to the immune response by secreting antibodies (humoral immunity), whereas T cells act primarily in cell-mediated immunity. T cells can be subdivided into T helper cells (CD4+, also called Th) and T cytotoxic cells (CD8+). B cells recognize their

antigens via their BCR.

T cells cannot recognize the antigen without some assistance. The antigenic determinant must be presented by an appropriate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. Thus, they recognize their antigens through their TCR in the form of an MHC/ peptide complex. CD8+ T cells “see” their antigens in the form of a peptide/MHC class I complex, whereas CD4+ T cells recognize their antigens as a peptide/MHC class II complex. MHC class I molecules are expressed at the surface of all nucleated cells, whereas MHC class II molecules are expressed only by professional APCs. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the major APCs, and they play a critical role in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. Macrophages and B lymphocytes can also act as professional APCs.

It is important to note that the cells of the innate immune system are critical to the initiation of the adaptive immune response. Thus, APC activation is the first step in the induction of adaptive immunity. DCs generally absorb antigens from the environment, and once they are activated (mostly by microbial compounds), they mature and migrate to the adjacent lymphoid tissue. To be activated, T cells must not only recognize their specific antigen in the form of a peptide/MHC complex, they also need a costimulation signal that is provided by the activated APCs.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02

[3.] Ntx/Fragment 004 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-10-21 16:31:48 Singulus
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Once activated, naive T lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. CD8+ T cells become cytotoxic (CTL), at which point they can target infected cells. CD4+ T helper (Th) cells control the immune response by activating and regulating other cells such as macrophages and B cells (Williams et al 1991).

Williams,M.E., Chang,T.L., Burke,S.K., Lichtman,A.H., Abbas,A.K., 1991. Activation of functionally distinct subsets of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Res. Immunol. 142, 23-28.

Once activated, naive T lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. CD8+ T cells become cytotoxic (CTL), at which point they can target infected cells. CD4+ T helper (Th) cells control the immune response by activating and regulating other cells such as macrophages and B cells.
Anmerkungen

Die eigentliche Quelle wird nicht angegeben. Art und Umfang der Übernahme bleiben ungekennzeichnet.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02

[4.] Ntx/Fragment 011 20 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-03-02 19:43:40 Schumann
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1.8. The mucosal immune system

Most of our encounters with antigens or infectious agents occur at mucosal surfaces, which include the surface lining the gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary tracts (Delves and Roitt 2000). Since nutrients are usually absorbed orally, they are thus ideally suited to influence the immune response at the “mucosal frontier” of the gastrointestinal tract, representing more than 300 m2. Well known for its nutrition function (digestion of food and the assimilation of the nutrients), the intestinal system is also able to protect us from the pathogenic microbes. It contains more than 100 million neurons, secretes at least 20 neurotransmitters identical to those produced by the brain (serotonin, noradrenalin, dopamine, etc.), produces 70 to 85 % of the immune cells of the organism, lodges 100 000 billion bacteria. All these compounds, present locally, are in relationship to the whole of the organism (Delcenserie et al 2008). Although the immune response of the intestinal mucosa exhibits several features in common with the immune responses produced by other organs, it is characterized by certain distinctive [properties.]

2. The mucosal immune system

Most of our encounters with antigens or infectious agents occur at mucosal surfaces, which include the surface lining the gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary tracts (Delves and Roitt, 2000). Since probiotics are usually absorbed orally, they are thus ideally suited to influence the immune response at the “mucosal frontier” of the gastrointestinal tract, representing more than 300 m2.

Well known for its nutrition function (digestion of food and the assimilation of the nutrients), the intestinal system is also able to protect us from the pathogenic microbes. It contains more than 100 million neurons, secretes at least 20 neurotransmitters identical to those produced by the brain (serotonin, noradrenalin, dopamine...), produces 70 to 85 % of the immune cells of the organism, lodges 100 000 billion bacteria. All these compounds, present locally, are in relationship to the whole of the organism. Although the immune response of the intestinal mucosa exhibits several features in common with the immune responses produced by other organs, it is characterized by certain distinctive properties.

Anmerkungen

The source is given once.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02)

[5.] Ntx/Fragment 012 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-10-21 20:34:59 Graf Isolan
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The immune properties of the digestive mucosa are provided by the GALT (Gut-associated lymphoid tissue). The GALT is composed of lymphoid aggregates, including the Peyer’s patches (located mainly in the small intestinal distal ileum), where induction of immune responses occurs, and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. In addition, there are large amounts of immune-competent cells in the lamina propria and the mucosal epithelium (Delcenserie et al 2008).

The intestine also protects us from pathogens because its epithelium is covered by mucus and avoids any direct contact with the microorganisms. The intestinal immune system must encounter all antigens in order to determine which ones require an immune response and which ones can be safely tolerated (Delcenserie et al 2008).

The intestinal immune system is the subject of complex regulation processes allowing the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, while maintaining a tolerance towards food antigens and endogenous flora. Butyrate as well as other products resulting from colic fermentation, could take part in this regulation (Marteau et al 2004).

1.9. Mucosal dendritic cells

[...] It has been shown that DCs, using their dendrites, act as guard cells in the intestinal lumen without disturbing the integrity of their tight surface junctions (Niess 2008).


Delcenserie,V., Martel,D., Lamoureux,M., Amiot,J., Boutin,Y., Roy,D., 2008. Immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in the intestinal tract. Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 10, 37-54.

Marteau,P., Seksik,P., Lepage,P., Dore,J., 2004. Cellular and physiological effects of probiotics and prebiotics. Mini. Rev. Med. Chem. 4, 889-896.

Niess,J.H., 2008. Role of mucosal dendritic cells in inflammatory bowel disease. World J. Gastroenterol. 14, 5138-5148.

The immune properties of the digestive mucosa are provided by the GALT (Gut-associated lymphoid tissue). The GALT is composed of lymphoid aggregates, including the Peyer’s patches (located mainly in the small intestinal distal ileum), where induction of immune responses occurs, and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. In addition, there are large amounts of immune-competent cells in the lamina propria and the mucosal epithelium. The intestine also protects us from pathogens because its epithelium is covered by mucus and avoids any direct contact with the micro-organisms. The intestinal immune system must encounter all antigens in order to determine which ones require an immune response and which ones can be safely tolerated.

[...] Finally, it has been shown that DCs, using their dendrites, also act as guard cells in the intestinal lumen without disturbing the integrity of their tight surface junctions. [...] The intestinal immune system is the subject of complex regulation processes allowing the elimination of pathogenic micro-organisms, while maintaining a tolerance towards food antigens and endogenous flora. Butyrate as well as other products resulting from colic fermentation, could take part in this regulation.

Anmerkungen

The source is given twice.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02), (Graf Isolan)

[6.] Ntx/Fragment 013 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-10-21 21:35:22 Graf Isolan
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[Defects in this regulation are supposed to lead to the several forms of inflammatory disease such as: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (MacDonald and Monteleone 2005)] and hemorrhagic rectocolitis (HRC), a deregulation of the intestinal immune system would lead to an inadequate response against one or more endoluminal antigens. An imbalance between Th1 (IL-2, IFNγ, T N F α ) and Th2 responses (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10) was described in human and also in animal models (Zeitz et al 1990). This led to a chronic inflammatory answer characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNFα). Thus, the cytokine profile plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis (Niess 2008).

MacDonald,T.T., Monteleone,G., 2005. Immunity, inflammation, and allergy in the gut. Science 307, 1920-1925.

Niess,J.H., 2008. Role of mucosal dendritic cells in inflammatory bowel disease. World J. Gastroenterol. 14, 5138-5148.

In chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases (CIID) such as Crohn’s disease (Macdonald and Monteleone, 2005 ; MacDonald et al., 2000) and hemorrhagic rectocolitis (HRC), a deregulation of the intestinal immune system would lead to an inadequate response against one or more endoluminal antigens. An imbalance between Th1 (IL-2, IFNγ, T N F α ) and Th2 responses (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10) was described in human and also in animal models. This led to a chronic inflammatory answer characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNFα).

[...] Thus, the cytokine profile plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis.


Macdonald, T.T., and Monteleone, G. (2005). Immunity, inflammation, and allergy in the gut. Science 307, 1920-1925.

Anmerkungen

Niess (2008) wäre die Quellenangabe für weite Teile des Materials gewesen, das auf der voran gegangenen Seite präsentiert wurde.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02)

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