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Titel    cell signalling
Verlag    (Wikipedia)
Datum    23. December 2008
URL    http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cell_signaling&oldid=259686403

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    3


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Pak/Fragment 022 26 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-06 07:31:19 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Pak, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Wikipedia cell signaling 2008

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Quelle: Wikipedia cell signaling 2008
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Many growth factors (CSF, GCSF, GMCSF, FLT3, TPO,IL-6, IL-3, IL-11 etc.) bind to receptors at the cell surface and stimulate cells to progress through the cell cycle and divide. Several of these receptors are kinases that start to phosphorylate themselves and other proteins when binding to a ligand. This phosphorylation can generate a binding site for a different protein and thus induce protein-protein interaction. Many growth factors bind to receptors at the cell surface and stimulate cells to progress through the cell cycle and divide. Several of these receptors are kinases that start to phosphorylate themselves and other proteins when binding to a ligand. This phosphorylation can generate a binding site for a different protein and thus induce protein-protein interaction.
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Note that the internal links that appear in the Wikipedia are directly translated into underlined words in the thesis.

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[2.] Pak/Fragment 023 14 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-06 09:46:46 Hindemith
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Quelle: Wikipedia cell signaling 2008
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[In the figure, the ligand called epidermal growth factor (EGF) binds to] the receptor (called EGFR). This activates the receptor to phosphorylate itself. The phosphorylated receptor binds to an adaptor protein (GRB2), which couples the signal to further downstream signaling processes. In Figure 3, the ligand (called epidermal growth factor (EGF)) binds to the receptor (called EGFR). This activates the receptor to phosphorylate itself. The phosphorylated receptor binds to an adaptor protein (GRB2) which couples the signal to further downstream signaling processes.
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[3.] Pak/Fragment 024 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-06 07:31:26 Hindemith
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Quelle: Wikipedia cell signaling 2008
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[One of the signal transduction] pathways that are activated is called the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.

The signal transduction component labelled as "MAPK" in the pathway was originally called "ERK," so the pathway is called the MAPK/ERK pathway. The MAPK protein is an enzyme, a protein kinase that can attach phosphate to target proteins such as the transcription factor MYC and, thus, alter gene transcription and, ultimately, cell cycle progression. Many cellular proteins are activated downstream of the growth factor receptors (such as EGFR) that initiate this signal transduction pathway (Fig.1.3.4b). Some signaling transduction pathways respond differently depending on the amount of signaling received by the cell. For instance, the hedgehog protein activates different genes, depending on the amount of hedgehog protein present. Complex multi-component signal transduction pathways provide opportunities for feedback, signal amplification, and interactions inside one cell between multiple signals and signaling pathways.

For example, one of the signal transduction pathways that is activated is called the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The signal transduction component labeled as "MAPK" in the pathway was originally called "ERK" so the pathway is called the MAPK/ERK pathway. The MAPK protein is an enzyme, a protein kinase that can attach phosphate to target proteins such as the transcription factor MYC and thus alter gene transcription and, ultimately, cell cycle progression. Many cellular proteins are activated downstream of the growth factor receptors (such as EGFR) that initiate this signal transduction pathway.

Some signaling transduction pathways respond differently depending on the amount of signaling received by the cell. For instance the hedgehog protein activates different genes depending on the amount of hedgehog protein present.

Complex multi-component signal transduction pathways provide opportunities for feedback, signal amplification, and interactions inside one cell between multiple signals and signaling pathways.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned anywhere in the thesis.

Note that the internal Wikipedia links are 1-to-1 translated into underlined words in the thesis.

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