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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Julian A. Martinez-Agosto, Hanna K.A. Mikkola, Volker Hartenstein, Utpal Banerjee
Titel    The hematopoietic stem cell and its niche: a comparative view
Zeitschrift    Genes & Development
Jahr    2007
Nummer    December 1, 2007; 21 (23)
Seiten    3044-3060
DOI    10.1101/gad.1602607
URL    http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/21/23/3044

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    3


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Analyse:Rsi/Fragment 006 16 - Diskussion
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Fragment, Martinez-Agosto et al. 2007, Rsi, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Unfertig, Verschleierung

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The critical balance between stem and differentiated cell populations is crucial for the long term maintenance of functional tissue types. Stem cells maintain this balance by choosing one of several alternate fates: self-renewal, commitment to differentiate, and senescence or cell death. These characteristics comprise the core criteria by which these cells are usually defined. The self-renewal property is important, as it allows for extended production of the corresponding differentiated cells throughout the life span [1, 2]. The critical balance between stem and differentiated cell populations is crucial for the longterm maintenance of functional tissue types. Stem cells maintain this balance by choosing one of several alternate fates: self-renewal, commitment to differentiate, and senescence or cell death. These characteristics comprise the core criteria by which these cells are usually defined. The self-renewal property is important, as it allows for extended production of the corresponding differentiated cells throughout the life span of the animal.
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[2.] Analyse:Rsi/Fragment 015 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2015-02-16 06:28:53 Klgn
Fragment, Martinez-Agosto et al. 2007, Rsi, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Unfertig, Verschleierung

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1.4 The importance of the HSC niche:

Key properties of stem cells such as their self-renewal and developmental capacity can be controlled in a non autonomous manner by their cellular microenvironment. Such a microenvironment is usually referred to as a stem cell niche. A niche is a group of cells that allows a stem cell to maintain its identity [21]. The cells of a niche will prevent a previously specified cell from losing its stemness through loss of quiescence and potency or precocious differentiation. In the best demonstrations of a niche, a specific signaling pathway or a cell adhesion molecule is identified that allows the niche cells to maintain contact with stem cells and typically in the absence of such a mechanism, the stem cells leave their niche and either divide, differentiate, or apoptose [21].

The niche and the stem cells may arise from the same progenitor population, as is the case of the origin of HSC and endothelial cells of the dorsal aorta, which share a common progenitor in their ancestry [47], and the placenta in mice [48].

A niche could be derived completely separately from the stem cell, as is the case for the bone marrow hematopoietic niche, which utilizes signals derived from osteoblasts and mesenchymal stromal cells, both of which, although mesodermal, have different developmental origins from the HSC [49].In the mouse adult bone marrow, N-cadherin is expressed in the HSC and the spindle-shaped osteoblastic cells of the niche [50]. Mammalian hematopoiesis gives rise to long-term reconstituting HSC that, in turn, generate short-term repopulating HSC [51]. From these stem cells a number of more restricted progenitors emerge that give rise to all differentiated blood cells in adult circulation, such as lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid cells [52]. Each of these progenitors can be distinguished by a subset of cell surface markers. Development of the initial definitive HSC requires Runx-1 [53], and its expression later continues in differentiating myeloid and lymphoid cells [54]. Later inactivation of Runx1 within the bone marrow is not essential for adult hematopoiesis, but it does affect maturation of lymphocytes and platelets [55].

[S. 3048]

Key properties of stem cells such as their self-renewal and developmental capacity can be controlled in a nonautonomous manner by their cellular microenvironment. Such a microenvironment is usually referred to as a stem cell niche (Fig. 3). [...] A niche is a group of cells that allows a stem cell to maintain its identity (Scadden 2006). The cells of a niche will prevent a previously specified cell from losing its stemness through loss of quiescence and potency or precocious differentiation. In the best demonstrations of a niche, a specific signaling pathway or a cell adhesion molecule is identified that allows the niche cells to maintain contact with stem cells and typically in the absence of such a mechanism, the stem cells leave their niche and either divide, differentiate, or apoptose (Scadden 2006).

[...]

The niche and the stem cells may arise from the same progenitor population, as is the case of the origin of HSC and endothelial cells of the dorsal aorta, which share a common progenitor in their ancestry (Jaffredo et al. 1998), and the placenta in mice (Gekas et al. 2005). [...] Finally, a niche could be derived completely separately from the stem cell, as is the case for the bone marrow hematopoietic niche, which utilizes signals derived from osteoblasts and mesencymal stromal cells, both of which, although mesodermal, have different developmental origins from the HSC (Wilson and Trumpp 2006).

[S. 3050]

In the mouse adult bone marrow, N-cadherin is expressed in the HSC and the spindle-shaped osteoblastic cells of the niche (Zhang et al. 2003).

[...]

Mammalian hematopoiesis gives rise to long-term reconstituting HSCs that, in turn, generate short-term repopulating HSCs (Eaves et al. 2001). From these stem cells a number of more restricted progenitors emerge that give rise to all differentiated blood cells in adult circulation, such as lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid cells (Akashi 2005). Each of these progenitors can be distinguished by a subset of cell surface markers. Development of the initial definitive HSC requires Runx-1 (North et al. 2002), and its expression later continues in differentiating myeloid and lymphoid cells (North et al. 2004). Later inactivation of Runx1 within the bone marrow is not essential for adult hematopoiesis, but it does affect maturation of lymphocytes and platelets (Growney et al. 2005).

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[3.] Analyse:Rsi/Fragment 017 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2015-02-16 06:28:13 Klgn
Fragment, Martinez-Agosto et al. 2007, Rsi, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Unfertig, Verschleierung

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[C-myc has been shown to be an important cell intrinsic regulator required for HSC homeostasis regulating the release of HSC] from the quiescence-promoting niche. Upon conditional ablation of c-myc in bone marrow HSC, these stem cells are unable to differentiate as they increase adhesion molecules on their surface and remain anchored to the niche that retains them in a quiescent, undifferentiated state [66]. Although the osteoblast endosteal niche of the mouse bone marrow is so far the best characterized hematopoietic niche, the majority of the HSC that engraft in transplantation assays actually localize in perivascular spaces, in contact with sinusoidal venous endothelium [67], leading to the speculation that these surfaces may provide additional niche-like interactions for the maintenance of adult HSC. C-myc has been shown to be an important cell intrinsic regulator required for HSC homeostasis regulating the release of HSCs from the quiescence-promoting niche. Upon conditional ablation of c-myc in bone marrow HSCs, these stem cells are unable to differentiate as they increase adhesion molecules on their surface and remain anchored to the niche that retains them in a quiescent, undifferentiated state (Wilson et al. 2004). Although the osteoblast endosteal niche of the mouse bone marrow is so far the best characterized hematopoietic niche, the

[S. 3055]

majority of the HSCs that engraft in transplantation assays actually localize in perivascular spaces, in contact with sinusoidal venous endothelium (Kiel et al. 2005), leading to the speculation that these surfaces may provide additional niche-like interactions for the maintenance of adult HSCs.

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