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Autor     Matthias Klusch
Titel    Semantic Web Service Description
Sammlung    CASCOM: Intelligent Service Coordination in the Semantic Web
Verlag    Springer
Jahr    2008
Seiten    31-57
ISBN    978-3-7643-8575-0
DOI    10.1007/978-3-7643-8575-0_3
URL    http://web.archive.org/web/20140910085519/http://www-ags.dfki.uni-sb.de/~klusch/i2s/cascom_book_ch3-4.pdf

Literaturverz.   

ja
Fußnoten    ja
Fragmente    5


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Saa/Fragment 020 07 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2015-05-17 09:19:16 SleepyHollow02
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Klusch 2008, SMWFragment, Saa, Schutzlevel sysop

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Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 20, Zeilen: 7-43
Quelle: Klusch 2008
Seite(n): 43, 44, 45, Zeilen: 43:26-34 - 44:1-25.37-38 - 45:1-2.9ff
SAWSDL

The standard language WSDL for Web Services operates at the mere syntactic level as it lacks any declarative semantics needed to meaningfully represent and reason upon them by means of logical inferencing. In a first response to this problem, the W3C Working Group on Semantic Annotations for WSDL and XML Schema (SAWSDL) [48] developed mechanisms with which semantic annotations can be added to WSDL components.

Unlike OWL or WSML, SAWSDL does not specify a language for representing formal ontologies but provides mechanisms by which ontological concepts that are defined outside WSDL service documents can be referenced to semantically annotate WSDL description elements. Based on its predecessor and W3C member submission WSDL-S [51] in 2005, the key design principles for SAWSDL are that (a) the specification enables semantic annotations of Web Services using and building on the existing extensibility framework of WSDL; (b) it is agnostic to semantic (ontology) representation languages; and (c) it enables semantic annotations for Web Services not only for discovering Web Services but also for invoking them (their grounding).

Based on these design principles, SAWSDL defines the following three new extensibility attributes to WSDL 2.0 elements for their semantic annotation:

• An extension attribute, named modelReference, to specify the association between a WSDL component and a concept in some semantic (domain) model. This modelReference attribute is used to annotate XML Schema complex type definitions, simple type definitions, element declarations, and attribute declarations as well as WSDL interfaces, operations, and faults.

• Two extension attributes, named liftingSchemaMapping and loweringSchema-Mapping, that are added to XML Schema element declarations, complex type definitions and simple type definitions for specifying mappings between semantic data in the domain referenced by modelReference and XML. These mappings can be used during service invocation.

One problem with SAWSDL is that it comes as a mere syntactic extension of WSDL, without any formal semantics. In opposite to OWL-S and (in part) WSML, there is no defined formal grounding of neither the XML-based WSDL service components nor the referenced external metadata sources (via modelReference). Another problem with SAWSDL today is its very limited software support. Notable exceptions are the implemented SAWSDL service discovery and composition planning means of the METEOR-S framework [52]. However, the recent announcement of SAWSDL as a W3C recommendation not only supports a standardized evolution of the W3C Web Service framework in principle (rather than a revolutionary technology switch to far more advanced technologies like OWL-S or WSML) but will push software development in support of SAWSDL and reinforce research on refactoring these frameworks with respect to SAWSDL.


[51] Web Service Semantics (WSDL-S); http://www.w3.org/Submission/WSDL-S/

[52] METEOR-S: Semantic Web Services and Process; http://lsdis.cs.uga.edu/projects/meteor-s/

[Seite 43]

3.3 SAWSDL

The standard language WSDL for Web Services operates at the mere syntactic level as it lacks any declarative semantics needed to meaningfully represent and reason upon them by means of logical inferencing. In a first response to this problem, the W3C Working Group on Semantic Annotations for WSDL and XML Schema (SAWSDL) developed mechanisms with which semantic annotations can be added to WSDL components. The SAWSDL specification became a W3C candidate recommendation on January 26, 20072, and eventually a W3C recommendation on August 28, 2007.

[Seite 44]

3.3.1 Annotating WSDL Components

Unlike OWL-S or WSML, SAWSDL does not specify a new language or toplevel ontology for semantic service description but simply provides mechanisms by which ontological concepts that are defined outside WSDL service documents can be referenced to semantically annotate WSDL description elements. Based on its predecessor and W3C member submission WSDL-S3 in 2005, the key design principles for SAWSDL are that (a) the specification enables semantic annotations of Web Services using and building on the existing extensibility framework of WSDL; (b) it is agnostic to semantic (ontology) representation languages; and (c) it enables semantic annotations for Web Services not only for discovering Web Services but also for invoking them.

Based on these design principles, SAWSDL defines the following three new extensibility attributes to WSDL 2.0 elements for their semantic annotation:

• An extension attribute, named modelReference, to specify the association between a WSDL component and a concept in some semantic (domain) model. This modelReference attribute is used to annotate XML Schema complex type definitions, simple type definitions, element declarations, and attribute declarations as well as WSDL interfaces, operations, and faults. Each modelReference identifies the concept in a semantic model that describes the element to which it is attached.

• Two extension attributes (liftingSchemaMapping and loweringSchema-Mapping) are added to the set of XML Schema element declarations, complex type definitions and simple type definitions. Both allow to specify mappings between semantic data in the domain referenced by modelReference and XML, which can be used during service invocation.

[...]

3.3.2 Limitations

Major critic of SAWSDL is that it comes, as a mere syntactic extension of WSDL, without any formal semantics. In contrast to OWL-S and (in part) WSML, there is

[Seite 45]

no defined formal grounding of neither the XML-based WSDL service components nor the referenced external metadata sources (via modelReference). [...]

Another problem with SAWSDL today is its –apart from the METEOR-S framework by the developers of SAWSDL (WSDL-S) and related ongoing development efforts at IBM– still very limited software support compared to the considerable investments made in research and development of software for more advanced frameworks like OWL-S and WSMO world wide. However, the recent announcement of SAWSDL as a W3C recommendation does not only support a standardized evolution of the W3C Web Service framework in principle (rather than a revolutionary technology switch to far more advanced technologies like OWL-S or WSML) but certainly will push software development in support of SAWSDL and reinforce research on refactoring these frameworks with respect to SAWSDL.

Anmerkungen

Ohne direkten Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Auf Seite 20 (Z. 4-6) wird eine von Matthias Klusch verfasste Quelle erwähnt:

"In the following sections, we briefly describe these approaches by taking the text snippets from [43], and refer the reader to this for detailed description.


[43] Matthias Klusch, On Agent-Based Semantic Service Coordination, Cumulative Habilitation Script 2008."

Hier handelt es sich aber um mehr als die Übernahme von "text snippets". Auch ist es fraglich, ob eine so generelle Quellenangabe die nachfolgenden wörtlichen Übernahmen ausreichend kennzeichnet.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[2.] Saa/Fragment 021 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2015-05-17 09:37:20 SleepyHollow02
Fragment, Gesichtet, KeineWertung, Klusch 2008, SMWFragment, Saa, Schutzlevel

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KeineWertung
Bearbeiter
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 21, Zeilen: 1-3
Quelle: Klusch 2008
Seite(n): 46, Zeilen: 1-3
OWL-S

OWL-S [49] is an upper ontology used to describe the semantics of services based on the W3C standard ontology OWL and is grounded in WSDL.


[49] OWL-S Semantic Markup for Web Services; http://www.w3.org/Submission/OWL-S/

3.4 OWL-S

OWL-S is an upper ontology used to describe the semantics of services based on the W3C standard ontology OWL and is grounded in WSDL.

Anmerkungen

Ohne direkten Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Auf Seite 20 (Z. 4-6) wird eine von Matthias Klusch verfasste Quelle erwähnt:
"In the following sections, we briefly describe these approaches by taking the text snippets from [43], and refer the reader to this for detailed description.


[43] Matthias Klusch, On Agent-Based Semantic Service Coordination, Cumulative Habilitation Script 2008."

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), (Hindemith), SleepyHollow02

[3.] Saa/Fragment 021 43 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2015-05-17 09:39:22 SleepyHollow02
Fragment, Gesichtet, KeineWertung, Klusch 2008, SMWFragment, Saa, Schutzlevel

Typus
KeineWertung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
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Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 21, Zeilen: 43-47
Quelle: Klusch 2008
Seite(n): 54, Zeilen: 23-27
WSML

The Web Service Modeling Framework (WSMF) [50] provides a conceptual model and a formal language WSML (Web Service Modeling Language) for the semantic markup of Web Services together with a reference implementation WSMX (Web Service Execution Environment).


[50] Fensel, D., Bussler, C. The Web Service Modeling Framework (WSMF). Eletronic Commerce: Research and Applications. Vol. 1. pp. 113-137, 2002

3.5 WSML

The WSMO (Web Service Modelling Ontology) framework18 provides a conceptual model and a formal language WSML (Web Service Modeling Language)19 for the semantic markup of Web Services together with a reference implementation WSMX (Web Service Execution Environment).


18http://www.wsmo.org/TR/d2/v1.4/20061106

19http://www.wsmo.org/TR/d16/d16.1/v0.21/20051005/

Anmerkungen

Ohne direkten Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Auf Seite 20 (Z. 4-6) wird eine von Matthias Klusch verfasste Quelle erwähnt:
"In the following sections, we briefly describe these approaches by taking the text snippets from [43], and refer the reader to this for detailed description."


[43] Matthias Klusch, On Agent-Based Semantic Service Coordination, Cumulative Habilitation Script 2008."

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), (Hindemith), SleepyHollow02

[4.] Saa/Fragment 022 26 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2015-05-17 09:54:12 Hindemith
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Klusch 2008, SMWFragment, Saa, Schutzlevel sysop

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Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 22, Zeilen: 26-33, 37-47
Quelle: Klusch 2008
Seite(n): 55, 56, Zeilen: 55: 16-19, 23-30; 56: 1ff
WSML allows to describe a SWS in terms of its functionality (service capability), imported ontologies, and the interface through which it can be accessed for orchestration and choreography. The syntax of WSML is mainly derived from F-Logic extended with more verbose keywords (e.g., "hasValue" for ->, "p memberOf T" for p:T etc.), and has a normative human-readable syntax, as well as an XML and RDF syntax for exchange between machines. WSML comes in five variants with respect to the logical expressions allowed to describe the semantics of service and goal description elements, namely WSMLCore, WSML-DL, WSML-Flight, WSML-Rule and WSML-Full.

Though WSML has a special focus on annotating Semantic Web Services like OWLS, it tries to cover more representational aspects from knowledge representation and reasoning under both classical FOL and nonmononotic LP semantics. For example, WSML-DL is a decidable variant of F-Logic(FO) with expressivity close to the description logic SHOIN(D), that is the variant OWL-DL of the standard ontology Web language OWL. WSML-Flight is a decidable Datalog variant of F-Logic(LP) (functionfree, non-recursive and DL-safe Datalog rules) with (nonmonotonic) default negation under perfect model semantics of locally stratified F-Logic programs with ground entailment. WSML-Rule is a fully-edged logic programming language with function symbols, arbitrary rules with inequality and nonmontonic negation, and meta-modeling elements such as treating concepts as instances, but does not feature existentials, strict (monotonic) negation, and equality reasoning. The semantics of WSML-Rule is defined through a mapping to undecidable (nonmonotonic, recursive) F-Logic(LP) variant with inequality and default negation under well-founded semantics [368].

WSML is particularly designed for describing a Semantic Web Service in terms of its functionality (service capability), imported ontologies in WSML, and the interface through which it can be accessed for the purpose of orchestration and choreography. [...]

[...]

The syntax of WSML is mainly derived from F-Logic extended with more verbose keywords and varies with respect to the logical expressions allowed to describe the semantics of service and goal description elements. WSML has a normative human-readable syntax, as well as an XML and an RDF syntax for exchange between machines. The language comes in different variants each grounded on a particular logic with different expressivity and computational complexity, namely, DL (WSML-DL), LP (WSML-Flight, WSML-Rule), and nonmonotonic logic (WSML-Full) (cf. Figure 3.10).

[Seite 56]

2. WSML-DL is a decidable DL variant of F-Logic, extending WSML-Core to SHIQ(D) that subsumes SHIF(D) underlying OWL-Lite and is subsumed by SHOIN(D) underlying OWL-DL. The model-theoretic semantics of WSMLDL generalizes that of WSML-Core and is defined through a mapping to function-free PL1 with equality. WSML-DL provides only limited modeling of restrictions (no closed world constraints) and no arbitrary rules.

3. WSML-Flight is a decidable Datalog variant of F-Logic (function-free, nonrecursive and DL-safe rules). Its modeling primitives allow to specify different aspects of attributes, such as value constraints and integrity constraints (via built-ins), while safe Datalog rules extended with inequality and (locally) stratified negation allow efficient decidable reasoning. In other words, in WSML-FLight, concepts, instances and attributes are interpreted as objects in F-Logic with (nonmonotonic) default negation under perfect model semantics [22] of locally stratified F-Logic programs with ground entailment.

4. WSML-Rule extends WSML-Flight to a fully-fledged LP language, i.e. with function symbols and allowing arbitrary, unsafe rules with inequality and unstratified negation. It also provides meta modeling such as treating concepts as instances, but does not feature existentials, classical (monotonic) negation, and equality reasoning. The semantics of WSML-Rule is defined in the same way as WSML-Flight but through a mapping to full LP, that is to the Horn fragment of F-Logic extended with inequality and default negation under well-founded semantics [26] in the body of the rule instead of through a mapping to Datalog. In brief, the semantics of WSML-Rule bases on the well-founded semantics applied to the LP fragment of F-Logic [27].


[27] T. Di Noia, E. Di Sciascio, F.M. Donini: Semantic Matchmaking as Non-Monotonic Reasoning: A Description Logic Approach. Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR), 29:269–307, 2007.

Anmerkungen

Einen Eintrag "[368]" gibt es im Literaturverzeichnis nicht.

Ohne direkten Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Auf Seite 20 (Z. 4-6) wird eine von Matthias Klusch verfasste Quelle erwähnt: "In the following sections, we briefly describe these approaches by taking the text snippets from [43], and refer the reader to this for detailed description."


[43] Matthias Klusch, On Agent-Based Semantic Service Coordination, Cumulative Habilitation Script 2008.

Mit Blick hierauf ist auch eine Einordnung als kW denkbar.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), (Hindemith), SleepyHollow02

[5.] Saa/Fragment 023 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2015-05-17 09:54:24 Hindemith
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Klusch 2008, SMWFragment, Saa, Schutzlevel sysop

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Quelle: Klusch 2008
Seite(n): 57, Zeilen: 1 ff.
[WSML-Full shall] unify the DL and LP paradigms as a superset of FOL with non-monotonic extensions to support nonmonotonic negation of WSML-Rule via Default Logic, Circumscription or Autoepistemic Logic. However, neither syntax nor semantics of WSML-Full have been completely defined yet. 5. WSML-Full shall unify the DL and LP paradigms as a superset of FOL with non-monotonic extensions to support the nonmonotonic negation of WSML-Rule via Default Logic, Circumscription or Autoepistemic Logic. However, neither syntax nor semantics of WSML-Full have been completely defined yet.
Anmerkungen

Fortsetzung von Saa/Fragment 022 26. Ohne direkten Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Auf Seite 20 (Z. 4-6) wird eine von Matthias Klusch verfasste Quelle erwähnt: "In the following sections, we briefly describe these approaches by taking the text snippets from [43], and refer the reader to this for detailed description."


[43] Matthias Klusch, On Agent-Based Semantic Service Coordination, Cumulative Habilitation Script 2008.

Sichter
(Hindemith), SleepyHollow02

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