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Autor     Andreas Gewies
Titel    Introduction to Apoptosis
Jahr    2003
URL    http://www.celldeath.de/encyclo/aporev/aporev.htm, http://www.celldeath.de/encyclo/aporev/apointro.pdf

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[1.] Shg/Fragment 024 17 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-10-29 18:44:55 Kybot
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Quelle: Gewies 2003
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1.3.1. Morphological features of apoptosis

Apoptosis has a lot of stereotypical morphological changes: The first is the cell shrink which shows deformation and looses contact to its neighboring cells. Its chromatin condenses and marginates at the nuclear membrane, then the cell membrane begins to show blebs and eventually these blebs separate from the dying cell and form "apoptotic bodies". The apoptotic bodies are engulfed by macrophages and thus are removed from the tissue without causing an inflammatory response. The apoptotic cells also cease to maintain phospholipid asymmetry in the cell membrane, and phosphotidylserine appears on the outer leaflet. The mitochondrial outer membrane also undergoes changes that include loss of its electrochemical gradient, and substances like cytochrome c leak into the cytoplasm. Finally, adjacent cells or macrophages phagocytose apoptotic bodies and the dying cell. Those morphological changes are consequences of [characteristic molecular and biochemical events which occur in an apoptotic cell.]

Apoptotic cells can be recognized by stereotypical morphological changes: the cell shrinks, shows deformation and looses contact to its neighbouring cells. Its chromatin condenses and marginates at the nuclear membrane, the plasma membrane is blebbing or budding, and finally the cell is fragmented into compact membrane-enclosed structures, called 'apoptotic bodies' which contain cytosol, the condensed chromatin, and organelles (Figure 2). The apoptotic bodies are engulfed by macrophages and thus are removed from the tissue without causing an inflammatory response. Those morphological changes are a consequence of characteristic molecular and biochemical events occurring in an apoptotic cell, most notably the activation of proteolytic enzymes which eventually mediate the cleavage of DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments as well as the cleavage of a multitude of specific protein substrates which usually determine the integrity and shape of the cytoplasm or organelles [Saraste, 2000].

[...]

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[2.] Shg/Fragment 025 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-11-02 20:33:53 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Gewies 2003, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Shg, Verschleierung

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Quelle: Gewies 2003
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[Those morphological changes are consequences of] characteristic molecular and biochemical events which occur in an apoptotic cell. Most of them are activated notably by proteolytic enzymes. It finally mediates the cleavage of DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments, in at the same time as the cleavage of a multitude of specific protein substrates which usually determine the integrity and shape of the cytoplasm or organelles [Saraste, A; Pulkki, K 2000]. Furthermore, apoptosis is in contrast to the necrotic mode of cell-death. During necrosis, the cellular contents are released uncontrolled into the cell's environment, which results in damage of surrounding cells and a strong inflammatory response in the corresponding tissue.

Saraste, A and Pulkki, K (2000). "Morphologic and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis." Cardiovasc Res 45(3): 528-37.

Those morphological changes are a consequence of characteristic molecular and biochemical events occurring in an apoptotic cell, most notably the activation of proteolytic enzymes which eventually mediate the cleavage of DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments as well as the cleavage of a multitude of specific protein substrates which usually determine the integrity and shape of the cytoplasm or organelles [Saraste, 2000]. Apoptosis is in contrast to the necrotic mode of cell-death in which case the cells suffer a major insult, resulting in a loss of membrane integrity, swelling and disrupture of the cells. During necrosis, the cellular contents are released uncontrolled into the cell's environment which results in damage of surrounding cells and a strong inflammatory response in the corresponding tissue [Leist, 2001a].

Saraste, A and Pulkki, K (2000). "Morphologic and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis." Cardiovasc Res 45(3): 528-37.

Leist, M and Jaattela, M (2001). "Four deaths and a funeral: from caspases to alternative mechanisms." Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2(8): 589-98.

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