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Autor     Raymond J. Kelleher, Arvind Govindarajan, Susumu Tonegawa
Titel    Translational Regulatory Mechanisms in Persistent Forms of Synaptic Plasticity
Zeitschrift    Neuron
Verlag    Cell Press
Ausgabe    44
Datum    September 2004
Seiten    59-73
URL    http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0896627304006063/1-s2.0-S0896627304006063-main.pdf?_tid=9194fea2-748f-11e7-81f2-00000aacb362&acdnat=1501354744_68bcf2d2e53e4d7f88592474b6e37058

Literaturverz.   

ja
Fußnoten    ja
Fragmente    3


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Sng/Fragment 037 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-07-29 19:14:04 Hindemith
Fragment, Kelleher et al 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sng, Verschleierung, ZuSichten

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Seite: 37, Zeilen: 1-8, 9-17
Quelle: Kelleher et al 2004
Seite(n): 66, Zeilen: l. Spalte: 1ff
[The tag does not necessarily has to be a single molecule, however, experimental data indicate that the] tag must satisfy a number of criteria: (1) the tag is induced in a protein synthesis-independent manner, (2) the tag possesses a lifetime of 1-2 hr, (3) the tag is induced both by early-LTP/ -LTD and by late-LTP/ -LTD, (4) the tag is induced in an input-specific and physically immobile manner, (5) the tag interacts with the proteins required for late-LTP/-LTD to facilitate capture/tagging, and (6) distinct tags are created as a consequence of LTP/LTD induction. A number of possible postsynaptic modifications have been enumerated as candidates for the synaptic tag (Frey and Morris, 1998a;Martin and Kosik, 2002). One possible candidate is the phosphorylated state of an early-LTP-associated kinase with duration of about four to six hours. For example, it is known that LTP requires the activation of various kinases, such as CaMKII, while LTD requires the activation of various phosphatases, such as calcineurin (CaN). Another possibility could be a change in cytoskeletal dynamics. There is evidence that cytoskeletal changes occur during LTP and LTD, these changes, along with changes in the molecular motors that interact with the cytoskeleton, could form the mechanism behind the tagging process. Alterations in membrane receptor number, molecular architecture of the synapse, localized protein degradation, or conformational changes in particular molecules, among other possibilities, could also form the basis for the tag. however, the experimental evidence dictates that the tag must satisfy a number of criteria: (1) the tag is induced in a protein synthesis-independent manner, (2) the tag possesses a finite lifetime of 1–2 hr, (3) the tag is induced both by E-LTP/E-LTD and by L-LTP/L-LTD, (4) the tag is induced in an input-specific and physically immobile manner, (5) the tag interacts with the proteins required for L-LTP/L-LTD to facilitate capture, and (6) distinct tags are created as a consequence of LTP and LTD induction.

A number of possible postsynaptic modifications have been enumerated as candidates for the synaptic tag (Frey and Morris, 1998; Martin and Kosik, 2002). The most straightforward of these possibilities is one or more specific phosphorylation or dephosphorylation events associated with the induction of LTP or LTD. For example, it is known that LTP requires the activation of various kinases, such as αCaMKII, while LTD requires the activation of various phosphatases, such as calcineurin (CaN). Another possibility could be a change in cytoskeletal dynamics. There is evidence that cytoskeletal changes occur during LTP and LTD; these changes, along with changes in the molecular motors that interact with the cytoskeleton, could form the mechanism behind the tag and capture process. Alterations in membrane receptor number, molecular architecture of the synapse, localized protein degradation, or conformational changes in particular molecules, among other possibilities, could also form the basis for the tag.

Anmerkungen

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[2.] Sng/Fragment 039 12 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-07-29 19:26:27 Hindemith
Fragment, KeineWertung, Kelleher et al 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sng, ZuSichten

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Seite: 39, Zeilen: 12-13
Quelle: Kelleher et al 2004
Seite(n): 65, Zeilen: figure caption
When four tetanic trains are delivered to a synapse (1), an LTP tag (2) is formed at the synapse (this tag may also be induced by a single tetanic train), and translation and transcription (3 and 4) are induced. When four tetanic trains are delivered to a synapse (1), an LTP tag (2) is formed at the synapse (this tag may also be induced by a single tetanic train), and translation and transcription (3 and 4) are induced.
Anmerkungen

Continued on the next page. At the end of the paragraph the source is mentioned, but it is not clear that the entire paragraph has been taken from the source almost verbatim.

The figure just before the paragraph is also taken from the same source, which is given.

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[3.] Sng/Fragment 040 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-07-29 19:28:36 Hindemith
Fragment, KeineWertung, Kelleher et al 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Sng, ZuSichten

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 40, Zeilen: 1-11
Quelle: Kelleher et al 2004
Seite(n): 65, Zeilen: figure caption
[The] newly synthesized proteins can support expression of both late-LTP and late-LTD and are thus presumed to include products necessary for late-LTP, late-LTD, or both. These newly synthesized proteins are also available to other synapses, but only the synapse bearing the LTP tag captures the proteins necessary for late-LTP, causing that synapse to express late -LTP and the accompanying structural changes (5). If a second synapse then receives weak-LFS (1′) in close temporal proximity to stimulation of the first synapse, transcription and translation are not induced, but an LTD tag is created (2′). This synapse then captures the proteins necessary for late-LTD (which were synthesized in response to late-LTP induction at the first synapse), resulting in structural changes (5′) and expression of late-LTD at the second synapse. A similar process also occurs when early-LTP is converted to late-LTP. Since the tag has a half-life of approximately 1-2 h, the weak stimulation can occur either before or after the strong stimulation (from Kelleher et al, 2004). The newly synthesized proteins can support expression of both L-LTP and L-LTD and are thus presumed to include products necessary for L-LTP, L-LTD, or both L-LTP and L-LTD (“LTP,” “LTD,” and “LTP and LTD proteins,” respectively). These newly synthesized proteins are also available to other synapses, but only the synapse bearing the LTP tag captures the proteins necessary for L-LTP, causing that synapse to express L-LTP and the accompanying structural changes (5). If a second synapse then receives W-LFS (1′) in close temporal proximity to stimulation of the first synapse, transcription and translation are not induced, but an LTD tag is created (2′). This synapse then captures the proteins necessary for L-LTD (which were synthesized in response to L-LTP induction at the first synapse), resulting in structural changes (5′) and expression of L-LTD at the second synapse. A similar process also occurs when E-LTP is converted to L-LTP. Since the tag has a half-life of approximately 1–2 hr, the weak stimulation can occur either before or after the strong stimulation.
Anmerkungen

Continued on the next page. At the end of the paragraph the source is mentioned, but it is not clear that the entire paragraph has been taken from the source almost verbatim.

The figure just before the paragraph is also taken from the same source, which is given.

Sichter
(Hindemith)

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