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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Cory Abate-Shen
Titel    Deregulated homebox gene expression in cancer: cause or consequence?
Zeitschrift    Nature Reviews
Verlag    Nature Publishing Group
Ausgabe    2
Datum    October 2002
Seiten    777-785
DOI    10.1038/nrc907
URL    http://hiccc.columbia.edu/lab/abate-shen/sites/abate-shen/files/useruploads/Abate-Shen_2002_Nat_Rev_Cancer.pdf

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    5


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Vpr/Fragment 006 03 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-16 20:20:12 Graf Isolan
Abate-Shen 2002, Fragment, KeineWertung, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Vpr, ZuSichten

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The homeobox (HB) was first identified in the 1980s as a sequence motif that was shared among Drosophila homeotic genes (the HOM-C complex), where they play a key role in embryonic differentiation along the anterior–posterior (ap) axis, and is now known to be present in many genes in virtually all eukaryotic species (Stein et. al., 1996). It is estimated that the human genome contains at least 200 homeobox genes (Tupler et. al., 2001), of which only 39 are members of the HOX family. Unlike the HOM-C/HOX genes, which are organized in gene clusters, most homeobox genes are dispersed throughout the genome (Abate-Shen, 2002).

Abate-Shen, C. (2002). Deregulated homeobox gene expression in cancer: cause or consequence? Nat Rev Cancer 2, 777-785.

Stein, S., Fritsch, R., Lemaire, L., and Kessel, M. (1996). Checklist: vertebrate homeobox genes. Mech Dev 55, 91-108.

Tupler, R., Perini, G., and Green, M. R. (2001). Expressing the human genome. Nature 409, 832-833.

The homeobox was first identified in the 1980s as a sequence motif that was shared among Drosophila HOMEOTIC GENES (the HOM-C complex), and is now known to be present in many genes in virtually all eukaryotic species1,2. [...] It is estimated that the human genome, for example, includes at least 200 homeobox genes3, of which only 39 are members of the HOX family. Unlike the HOM-C/HOX genes, which are organized on chromosome clusters, most homeobox genes are dispersed throughout the genome.

1. Duboule, D. (ed.) Guidebook to the Homeobox Genes (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1994).

2. Stein, S., Fritsch, R., Lemaire, L. & Kessel, M. Checklist: vertebrate homeobox genes. Mech. Dev. 55, 91–108 (1996).

3. Tupler, R., Perini, G. & Green, M. R. Expressing the human genome. Nature 409, 832–833 (2001).

Anmerkungen

The source is mentioned at the end, but due to the positioning of the two other references the reader cannot assume that the entire paragraph is taken from the source (except for a half-sentence).

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[2.] Vpr/Fragment 006 25 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-16 20:18:26 Graf Isolan
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Although individual members of homeobox families often share little sequence similarity other than the homeobox, some families have additional conserved sequence motifs that contribute to their distinct functional properties (Fig. 5) (Abate-Shen, 2002; Owens and Hawley, 2002) Although individual members of homeobox families often share little sequence similarity other than the homeobox, some families have additional conserved sequence motifs that contribute to their distinct functional properties (BOX 3).
Anmerkungen

The source is given, but the quotation is not marked, and the reader cannot assume any quotation here, as two sources are given.

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(Hindemith)

[3.] Vpr/Fragment 007 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-05 07:38:04 Hindemith
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Figure 4. The structure of the homeodomain. Despite its considerable variation in primary sequence, the three-dimensional structure of the homeodomain has been well conserved, and corresponds to three α helices that have a relatively unstructured amino-terminal arm. The consensus amino acids, which are invariant among all homeodomains, are essential in maintaining structural integrity and making essential contacts with DNA. Amino acids that distinguish the various homeoprotein families contribute to differences in their DNA-binding specificities and other functional properties. The figure shows the Engrailed–DNA complex (Figure adapted from Abate-Shen, 2002)

07b diss Vpr.png

Figure 5. Generating diversity among homeoproteins. The distinct classes of homeoproteins show considerable sequence diversity within the homeodomain (top), and within the amino- and carboxy-terminal regions that flank this domain (bottom). The sequence diversity is believed to contribute to their distinct functional properties, by generating distinct DNA-binding specificities, promoting unique protein–protein interactions, and other mechanisms. [Functional diversity is also generated by additional conserved domains or motifs that occur in particular homeoprotein families. HOX proteins contain a hexapeptide (HP) motif-a short stretch of conserved residues that are responsible for mediating interactions with PBX homeoproteins. MSX proteins also have short stretches of conserved amino acids that flank the homeodomain, called the extended homeodomain (EHD), although their functions are unknown. PAX proteins contain an additional DNA-binding domain, known as the paired box. Members of the SIX family have a conserved amino-terminal domain called the Six domain, and LIM homeoproteins are named after a protein interaction motif, the LIM domain (Figure adapted from Abate-Shen, 2002).]

Box 3 Generating diversity among homeoproteins

The distinct classes of homeoproteins show considerable sequence diversity within the homeodomains (top), and within the amino- and carboxy-terminal regions that flank this domain (bottom). The sequence diversity is believed to contribute to their distinct functional properties, by generating distinct DNA-binding specificities, promoting unique protein–protein interactions, and other mechanisms. Functional diversity is also generated by additional conserved domains or motifs that occur in particular homeoprotein families. HOX proteins contain a hexapeptide (HP) motif-a short stretch of conserved residues that are responsible for mediating interactions with PBX homeoproteins. MSX proteins also have short stretches of conserved amino acids that flank the homeodomain, called the extended homeodomain (EHD), although their functions are unknown. PAX proteins contain an additional DNA-binding domain, known as the paired box. Members of the SIX family have a conserved amino-terminal domain called the Six domain, and LIM homeoproteins are named after the protein interaction motif, the LIM domain.

07b source Vpr.png


Box 4 The structure of the homeodomain

Despite its considerable variation in primary sequence, the three-dimensional structure of the homeodomain has been well conserved, and corresponds to three α-helices that have a relatively unstructured amino-terminal arm. The consensus amino acids, which are invariant among all homeodomains, are essential in maintaining structural integrity and making essential contacts with DNA. Amino acids that distinguish the various homeoprotein families contribute to differences in their DNA-binding specificities and other functional properties. The figure shows the Engrailed–DNA complex.

07a source Vpr.png

Anmerkungen

The source is given at the end of the two figure captions. However, both figures are copied and not "adapted". Furthermore, the extensive figure captions are also taken 1-to-1 from the source, which does not become clear from the references at all.

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[4.] Vpr/Fragment 008 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-05 07:38:08 Hindemith
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Functional diversity is also generated by additional conserved domains or motifs that occur in particular homeoprotein families. HOX proteins contain a hexapeptide (HP) motif-a short stretch of conserved residues that are responsible for mediating interactions with PBX homeoproteins. MSX proteins also have short stretches of conserved amino acids that flank the homeodomain, called the extended homeodomain (EHD), although their functions are unknown. PAX proteins contain an additional DNA-binding domain, known as the paired box. Members of the SIX family have a conserved amino-terminal domain called the Six domain, and LIM homeoproteins are named after a protein interaction motif, the LIM domain (Figure adapted from Abate-Shen, 2002). Functional diversity is also generated by additional conserved domains or motifs that occur in particular homeoprotein families. HOX proteins contain a hexapeptide (HP) motif-a short stretch of conserved residues that are responsible for mediating interactions with PBX homeoproteins. MSX proteins also have short stretches of conserved amino acids that flank the homeodomain, called the extended homeodomain (EHD), although their functions are unknown. PAX proteins contain an additional DNA-binding domain, known as the paired box. Members of the SIX family have a conserved amino-terminal domain called the Six domain, and LIM homeoproteins are named after the protein interaction motif, the LIM domain.
Anmerkungen

The copied text belongs to a figure caption, see Vpr/Fragment_007_01.

The source is given, but the reference only covers the figure, not the equally copied figure caption.

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(Hindemith) Schumann

[5.] Vpr/Fragment 015 03 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-17 12:46:11 Graf Isolan
Abate-Shen 2002, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Vpr

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CDX2 is normally expressed in the gut during development and adulthood. However, its expression is lost in colorectal tumors and corresponding carcinoma cell lines (Ee et. al., 1995; Hinoi et. al., 2003; Hinoi et. al., 2001). A role for the loss of Cdx2 expression in colorectal carcinoma development can be inferred from the frequent occurrence of adenomatous intestinal polyps in Cdx2 heterozygous mutant mice.

Ee, H. C., Erler, T., Bhathal, P. S., Young, G. P., and James, R. J. (1995). Cdx-2 homeodomain protein expression in human and rat colorectal adenoma and carcinoma. Am J Pathol 147, 586-592.

Hinoi, T., Loda, M., and Fearon, E. R. (2003). Silencing of CDX2 expression in colon cancer via a dominant repression pathway. J Biol Chem 278, 44608-44616.

Hinoi, T., Tani, M., Lucas, P. C., Caca, K., Dunn, R. L., Macri, E., Loda, M., Appelman, H. D., Cho, K. R., and Fearon, E. R. (2001). Loss of CDX2 expression and microsatellite instability are prominent features of large cell minimally differentiated carcinomas of the colon. Am J Pathol 159, 2239-2248.

CDX2 is normally expressed in the gut during development and adulthood52–54; however, its expression is lost in colorectal tumours and corresponding carcinoma cell lines32,55,56.A functional role for the loss of function of Cdx2 in colorectal carcinoma has been indicated by the frequent occurrence of ADENOMATOUS INTESTINAL POLYPS in Cdx2 heterozygous mutant mice57;

32. Ee, H. C., Erler, T., Bhathal, P. S., Young, G. P. & James, R. J. Cdx-2 homeodomain protein expression in human and rat colorectal adenoma and carcinoma. Am. J. Pathol. 147, 586–592 (1995).

52. James, R. & Kazenwadel, J. Homeobox gene expression in the intestinal epithelium of adult mice. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 3246–3251 (1991).

53. James, R., Erler, T. & Kazenwadel, J. Structure of the murine homeobox gene cdx-2. Expression in embryonic and adult intestinal epithelium. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 15229–15237 (1994).

54. Silberg, D. G., Swain, G. P., Suh, E. R. & Traber, P. G. Cdx1 and cdx2 expression during intestinal development. Gastroenterology 119, 961–971 (2000).

55. Mallo, G. V. et al. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression of the mRNA encoding human Cdx1 and Cdx2 homeobox. Down-regulation of Cdx1 and Cdx2 mRNA expression during colorectal carcinogenesis. Int. J. Cancer 74, 35–44 (1997).

56. Hinoi, T. et al. Loss of CDX2 expression and microsatellite instability are prominent features of large cell minimally differentiated carcinomas of the colon. Am. J. Pathol. 159, 2239–2248 (2001).

57. Chawengsaksophak, K., James, R., Hammond, V. E., Kontgen, F. & Beck, F. Homeosis and intestinal tumours in Cdx2 mutant mice. Nature 386, 84–87 (1997). [...]

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