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Titel    Countrty Profile: Sudan
Herausgeber    Library of Congress – Federal Research Division
Datum    December 2004
URL    http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/cs/profiles/Sudan-new.pdf

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    4


Fragmente der Quelle:
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1.3.1 Geography

Sudan is located in Northeastern Africa. It borders the Red Sea between Egypt on the North and Eritrea and Ethiopia on the Southeast; while Chad and the Central [African Republic are located on the West.]

GEOGRAPHY

Location: Sudan is located in northeastern Africa. It borders the Red Sea between Egypt on the north and Eritrea and Ethiopia on the southeast; it borders Chad and the Central African Republic on the west.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

To be continued on the next page, see Fragment 018 01.

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(Hindemith) Schumann

[2.] Wfe/Fragment 018 01 - Diskussion
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The total area of the country is 2,505,813 square kilometers. The length of Sudans borders is 7,687 kilometers. The bordering countries are the Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, and Uganda.

The country in general is a broad, flat plain, with low mountains in the Northeast (near the Red Sea coast), in the West, and on the Southeast. A group of low mountains in the south-central region are known as the Nuba Mountains. The Nile River divides the Eastern third from the Western two-thirds of the country. In the North, the Nubian Desert lies to the east of the Nile and the Libyan Desert to the West. The two areas are stony, virtually rainless, and dune-covered. South of the central area, vegetation gradually changes from dry grassland and woodland to verdant savannah.

The Nile is the dominant geographic feature of Sudan, flowing for approximately 3,000 kilometers from Uganda in the South to Egypt in the North. Most of the country lies within the Nile's catchment basin. The Blue Nile originating in the Ethiopian higlands and the White Nile from the Central African lakes, join at Khartoum to form the Nile River proper that flows to Egypt. Other major tributaries of the Nile include Bahr al Ghazal, Sobat, and Atbarah rivers.

There has been no comprehensive census in Sudan since 1983. The most recent survey occurred in 1993, which produced a population figure of 24.9 million, but it omitted the South because of insecurity. In 2003 the United Nations Population Division estimated Sudans population at 33.6 million, a figure similar to other estimates. According to the United Nations, the annual growth rate was 2.8 percent. The United Nations estimated the population density at 13.4 persons per square kilometer, which is a misleading measurement since half of the population lives on approximately 15 percent of the land, and the Northern third of the country is quite thinly populated. Estimates of urbanisation ranged from 31 percent to 37 percent, with the highest concentration in the greater Khartoum area.

Size: The total area of the country is 2,505,813 square kilometers.

Land Boundaries: The length of Sudan’s borders is 7,687 kilometers. Border countries are: Central African

[page 4]

Republic (1,165 kilometers), Chad (1,360 kilometers), Democratic Republic of the Congo (628 kilometers), Egypt (1,273 kilometers), Eritrea (605 kilometers), Ethiopia (1,606 kilometers), Kenya (232 kilometers), Libya (383 kilometers), and Uganda (435 kilometers).

[...]

Topography: The country is generally a broad, flat plain, with low mountains in the northeast near the Red Sea coast, in the west, and on the southeast. An outcropping of low mountains in the south-central region is known as the Nuba Mountains. The Nile River system divides the eastern third from the western two-thirds of the country. In the North, the Nubian Desert lies to the east of the Nile, the Libyan Desert to the west. Both are stony, virtually rainless, and dune-covered. South of Khartoum, the vegetation gradually changes from dry grassland and woodland to verdant savannah.

Principal Rivers: The Nile is the dominant geographic feature of Sudan, flowing 3,000 kilometers from Uganda in the south to Egypt in the north. Most of the country lies within its catchment basin. The Blue Nile and the White Nile, originating in the Ethiopian highlands and the Central African lakes, respectively, join at Khartoum to form the Nile River proper that flows to Egypt. Other major tributaries of the Nile are the Bahr al Ghazal, Sobat, and Atbarah rivers.

[page 5]

Population: Sudan has not had a comprehensive census since 1983. The most recent survey occurred in 1993, which produced a population figure of 24.9 million, but it omitted the South because of insecurity. As a result, most if not all demographic and social statistics are based on dated and incomplete information. In 2003 the United Nations Population Division estimated Sudan’s population at 33.6 million, a figure compatible with other estimates, although one or two estimates were higher by several million. According to the United Nations, the annual growth rate was 2.8 percent. The United Nations estimated the population density at 13.4 persons per square kilometer, a misleading measurement because half of the population lives on approximately 15 percent of the land, and the northern third of the country is quite thinly populated. Estimates of urbanization ranged from 31 percent to 37 percent, with the greatest concentration in the greater Khartoum area.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

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1.3.2 History

Northern Sudan was inhabited by hunter-gatherers by at least 60,000 years ago. With the advent of pastoralists, these people had given way to them and probably to agriculturalists at least by the fourth millennium B.C. Sudan's subsequent culture and history have largely revolved around relations to the South with tropical Africa, and to the North with Egypt, the Nile River forming a bridge through the Sahara Desert between the two. The Ancient Egyptians sent military expeditions into Nubia, and at times occupied it as well as Cush, the land between the second and sixth cataracts, influencing the population of the North. From the early eighth century to the mid-seventh century B. C., the Cushites conquered and ruled Egypt. By the early sixth century B.C., the Cushitic state of Meroe had emerged and it eventually extended southward almost to present-day Khartoum. Meroe was in a good position for trade, as trade passing North to Egypt stopped there. The Meroites also had a route to and from the Red Sea, and, on the Red Sea, trade was increasing to and from India and East Asia. Meroe also maintained commercial relations with the Roman world, developed a distinctive culture and written language, and became the locale of an iron-working industry. It succumbed to invasion in the mid-fourth century A.D., their Conquerors being the neighboring Aksum kingdom, based in Ethiopia. By the sixth century, three states emerged as the political and cultural heirs of the Meroitic kingdom. They were all ruled by warrior aristocracies who converted to Christianity, accepting the Monophysite rite of Egypt. The use of Greek in liturgy was encouraged by the church and eventually gave way to the Nubian language. Arabic, however, gained importance after the seventh century, especially as a medium for commerce, after the expansion of the Muslim empire. With the disintegration of the Christian Nubian kingdoms by the fifteenth century, Islamic culture and religion spread throughout Northern and Eastern Sudan. Pastoralists from Egypt advanced into the land, gradually giving rise to a new population composed of local Nubians and Muslim Arabs (Fadlalla, 2004).


Fadlalla, M, H,, Short History of Sudan, i universe, 2004,

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Prehistory and Early History: Northern Sudan was inhabited by hunting and gathering peoples by at least 60,000 years ago. These peoples had given way to pastoralists and probably agriculturalists at least by the fourth millennium B.C. Sudan’s subsequent culture and history have largely revolved around relations to the north with Egypt and to the south with tropical Africa, the Nile River forming a “bridge” through the Sahara Desert between the two. The Ancient Egyptians sent military expeditions into Nubia, the region between the first and second Nile cataracts, and at times occupied Nubia as well as Cush, the land between the second and sixth cataracts, the population becoming partially Egyptianized. From the early eighth century to the mid-seventh century B. C., the Cushites conquered and ruled Egypt. By the early sixth

[page 2]

century B.C., a Cushitic state, Meroe, had emerged that eventually extended southward almost to present-day Khartoum. Meroe maintained commercial relations with the Roman world, developed a distinctive culture and written language, and became the locale of an iron-working industry. It succumbed to invasion in the mid-fourth century A. D.

By the sixth century, three states had emerged as the political and cultural heirs of the Meroitic kingdom. All were ruled by warrior aristocracies who converted to Christianity, accepting the Monophysite rite of Egypt. The church encouraged literacy, the use of Greek in liturgy eventually giving way to the Nubian language. Arabic, however, gained importance after the seventh century, especially as a medium for commerce. With the disintegration of the Christian Nubian kingdoms by the fifteenth century, Islamic civilization and religion spread throughout northern and eastern Sudan. Pastoralists from Egypt filtered into the land, gradually giving rise to a new population composed of local Nubians and Muslim Arabs.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given, nothing is marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

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1.3.3.1 Ethnic groups

Ethnic identity is highly fluid in Sudan and depends upon the criteria by which individual groups of Sudanese distinguish themselves from other groups. The largest and most commonly recognized ethnic groups are the Arabs, Nubians, Beja, and Fur (all Northerners and Muslims), and the Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, and Nuba, all Nilotic peoples of the South. The Arabs and Dinka represent the largest groups within their respective regions. All of these ethnic groups are further subdivided into tribal or other units. In rough percentages, Sudans population is composed of 50 percent black Africans, 40 percent Arabs, 6 percent Beja, and 34 [sic!] percent other.

Ethnic Groups: Ethnic identity is highly fluid in Sudan and depends upon the criteria by which individual groups of Sudanese distinguish themselves from other groups. The largest commonly recognized ethnic groups are Arabs, Nubians, Beja, and Fur (all Northerners and Muslims), and the Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, and Nuba, all Nilotic peoples of the South. The Arabs and Dinka are the largest groups within their respective regions. All of these ethnic groups are subdivided into tribal or other units. In rough percentages, Sudan’s population is composed of 50 percent black Africans, 40 percent Arabs, 6 percent Beja, and 3–4 percent other.
Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation and no source is given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

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