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Titel    Recent African origin of modern humans
Verlag    (Wikipedia)
Datum    13. March 2007
URL    https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Recent_African_origin_of_modern_humans&oldid=114903670

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Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    3


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[1.] Wfe/Fragment 014 04 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-01-09 22:04:39 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Wfe, Wikipedia Recent African origin of modern humans 2007

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Quelle: Wikipedia Recent African origin of modern humans 2007
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In paleoanthropology, the recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH, or Out-of-Africa model, or Replacement Hypothesis) is one of two influential accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. According to the RSOH, anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, with members of one branch leaving Africa between 55000 to 80,000 years ago. In paleoanthropology, the recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH, or Out-of-Africa model, or Replacement Hypothesis) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. According to the RSOH, anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa before 200,000 to 100,000 years ago, with members of one branch leaving Africa about 80,000 years ago.
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[2.] Wfe/Fragment 016 02 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-01-09 22:04:43 Hindemith
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Quelle: Wikipedia Recent African origin of modern humans 2007
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Assuming only relatively recent migrants from Africa gave rise to today's non- African humans, there could have been more than one migration that left descendants. Two routes for the migration out of Africa have been assumed (Forster and Matsumura, 2005). The first and most obvious route is from Egypt, across the Sinai into the Levant. This route is confronted by the major obstruction of the arid zone of the Sahara and Sinai deserts, and thus tends to be only passable during the short periods of interglacial optimum when the Sahara is covered by fresh water lakes, rivers and abundant game. The second route only opened when sea levels fell; it is across the Bab-el-Mandeb, between Yemen and Djibouti. This route too is obstructed by a barrier, the Red Sea and its hazardous reefs, and so is usually only opened when there is a major fall in sea levels. At the times at which sea levels were low, this area is also one of high aridity, probably keeping a beachcombing human population close to the ancient shorelines, which are now well below sea-level, making the finding of early human fossils there very difficult.

Forster, P., and S. Matsumura, Evolution. Did early humans go north or south?, Science, 308 , 965-966, 2005.

Assuming only relatively recent migrants from Africa gave rise to today's non-African humans, was there more than one migration that left descendants? (for example, one each via the north and south ends of the Red Sea)

There are two possible routes out of Africa.

1. The first and most obvious one is from Egypt, across the Sinai into the Levant. This route is confronted by the major impediment of the arid zone of the Sahara and Sinai deserts, and thus tends to be only passable during the short periods of interglacial optimum when the Sahara is covered by fresh water lakes, rivers and abundant game.
2. The second route, only opened when sea levels fall is across the Bab-el-Mandeb, between Yemen and Djibouti/Eritrea. This route too is confronted by a barrier, this time the Red Sea and its hazardous reefs, and so is usually only opened when there is a major fall in sea levels. Although, humans must have had ocean-going vessels at least 60,000 years ago to reach Australia, which was separated by a minimum of 80 miles of ocean even at the ocean's lowest level, so it is also possible that humans had vessels capable of crossing a gap of ocean at the strait of Aden not long earlier. This area, at the times at which sea levels were low, is also an area of high aridity, probably keeping a beachcombing human population close to the ancient shorelines, now well below sea-level, making the finding of early human fossils here very difficult.
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[3.] Wfe/Fragment 017 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-01-09 22:04:47 Hindemith
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Quelle: Wikipedia Recent African origin of modern humans 2007
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Genetic evidence suggests that humans departed Africa only once. The mtDNA M and N haplogroups are derived from haplogroup L3, and they both suggest a single exit from Africa. The distribution of the M158 Y chromosome haplotype of the "Eurasian Adam" indicates a similar history, dating the period between 30-79,000 years ago. During the period in which it is thought (on genetic evidence) humans left Africa, between 55,000 and 85,000 years ago, paleoclimatological evidence suggests that a vast belt of desert stretched from the West African Atlantic border to the Eastern Siberian Pacific border. These deserts confined humans south of that line, and reduced the food returns to cultures based exclusively on grassland and woodland based hunter gatherer technologies. The M haplogroups seems to support the existence of this barrier. The fall in sea levels at the time opened up the second route out of Africa, and the growth of a beachcombing lifestyle, confirmed at the perched coastline shell-middens at Zuli Bay, allowed additional dietary supplements, in the form of hunting large game and with highly nutritious shellfish.

Low glacial sea levels at this period would have been the first time in millennia that permitted a dry crossing from the Gulf of Aden to the islands East of Java facing Australia. Among Y-chromosomal haplogroups, the M130 and the M174 YAP gene haplogroups in particular support this hypothesis as their path follows a great arc along the shorelines of Saudi Arabia, India, South East Asia and Australia. This beachcomber society moved on through Southern China and Taiwan to Japan and Eastern Siberia. Approximately 8-10,000 years ago the M130 haplogroup was carried by Na-Dené speaking peoples into the North West Pacific coast of America (Forster, 2004).


Forster, P., Ice ages and the mitochondrial DNA chronology of human dispersals: a review, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci , 359 , 255-264, 2004.

Genetic evidence suggests Homo sapiens left Africa in prehistoric times only once. The mtDNA M* and N* haplogroups derive from haplogroup L3, and suggest a single exit from Africa. The distribution of the M158 Y chromosome haplotype of the "Eurasian Adam" shows a similar history, dating to the period between 30,000 - 79,000 years ago. In the period in which it is thought, on genetic evidence, humans left Africa, between 75,000 and 85,000 years ago, paleoclimatological evidence suggests a vast belt of desert stretched from the West African Atlantic to the Eastern Siberian Pacific. These deserts kept AMH humans confined south of that line, and reduced the food returns to cultures based exclusively on grassland and woodland based hunter gatherer technologies. The M* haplogroups seems to support the existence of this barrier. The drop in sea levels at the time did open up the second route out of Africa, and the growth of a beachcombing lifestyle, confirmed at the perched coastline shell-middens at Zuli Bay, did allow dietary supplementing of hunting of large game with highly nutritious shellfish.

Low glacial sea levels at this period would have been the first time in millennia permitting a dry walk from the Gulf of Aden to the islands East of Java facing Australia.(citation needed) Among Y-chromosomal haplogroups, the M130 and the M174 YAP gene haplogroups in particular confirm this hypothesis as their path traces a great arc along the shorelines of Saudi Arabia, India, South East Asia and Australia. This beachcomber culture moved on through southern China, and Taiwan to Japan and Eastern Siberia. There about 8-10,000 years ago the M130 haplogroup was carried by Na-Dené speaking peoples into the North West Pacific coast of America.

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