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Androgen Receptor and PIN1 in Prostate Cancer

von Dott. Raffaele La Montagna

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[1.] Rlm/Fragment 007 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-12-01 13:42:01 Singulus
Fragment, Gesichtet, Rlm, SABiosciences Androgen Signaling 2009, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 7, Zeilen: 1 ff. (entire page)
Quelle: SABiosciences Androgen Signaling 2009
Seite(n): 1 (Internetversion), Zeilen: -
However, excessive production of adrenal androgens can cause premature puberty in young boys and their hypersecretion in females produce a masculine pattern of body hair and cessation of menstruation(6). Their miss-regulation [sic] is also implicated in the formation and progression of prostatic adenocarcinoma (7). Therefore, the removal of testicular androgens by castration has long been recognized to result in tumor regression, and surgical or pharmacological androgen ablation remains the predominant form of treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Androgen ablation therapy is often combined with the treatment of nonsteroidal antiandrogens, such as hydroxyflutamide, to block residual androgens action. Androgen Replacement Therapy has been in use for over 60 years to treat, with proven efficacy and safety, on patients with male hypogonadal disorders and/or failure of sexual development. Apart from that, the last decade has witnessed a wider therapeutic role of androgens for nonclassical indications.

6) Culig Z, Bartsch G 2006 Androgen axis in prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem 99:373–381

7) Bakin RE, Gioeli D, Sikes RA, Bissonette EA, Weber MJ 2003 Constitutive activation of the ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway promotes androgen hypersensitivity in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 63:1981–1989

16) Culig Z, Klocker H, Bartsch G, Steiner H, HobischA [sic] Anrogen [sic] Receptor in Prostate Cancer J Urol. 2003 Oct;170(4): 1363-1369.

17) Petre CE, Wetherill YB, Danielsen M, Knudsen KE. Cyclin D1: mechanism and consequence of androgen receptor co-repressor activity. J Biol Chem 2002 Jan 18;277 (3):2207-15. Epub 2001 Nov 19.

However, excessive production of adrenal androgens can cause premature puberty in young boys and their hypersecretion in females, may produce a masculine pattern of body hair and cessation of menstruation (Ref.4). Their mis-regulation is also implicated in the formation and progression of prostatic adenocarcinoma (Ref.3). Therefore, the removal of testicular androgens by castration has long been recognized to result in tumor regression, and surgical or pharmacological androgen ablation remain the predominant form of treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Androgen ablation therapy is often combined with treatment with nonsteroidal antiandrogens, such as hydroxyflutamide, to block residual adrenal androgen action. Androgen Replacement Therapy has been in use for over 60 years to treat, with proven efficacy and safety, on patients with male hypogonadal disorders and/or failure of sexual development. Apart from that, the last decade has witnessed a wider therapeutic role of androgens for nonclassical indications.

3. Culig Z, Klocker H, Bartsch G, Steiner H, Hobisch A
Androgen Receptors in Prostate Cancer.
J Urol. 2003 Oct;170(4):1363-1369.

4. Petre CE, Wetherill YB, Danielsen M, Knudsen KE
Cyclin D1: mechanism and consequence of androgen receptor co-repressor activity
J Biol Chem. 2002 Jan 18;277(3):2207-15. Epub 2001 Nov 19.

Anmerkungen

Not marked as a citation.

There is no reference (16) in the main text of Rlm's thesis.

Mark the difference in the placement of the year in the references (twice right behind the names, twice after the name of the journal) in Rlm demonstrated here, which is an indication of two different sources for these references. Furthermore it should be noted that this corresponds to the particular number of the journal being listed as well (in contrast to just the volume being identified).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


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