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Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 18, Zeilen: 5-13, 19
Quelle: Wong et al 2004
Seite(n): 267, Zeilen: right col. 16-25
Post-translational modifications such as acetylation and sumoylation have been shown to influence the transactivation potential of the AR (19,20). However, it is not clear whether phosphorylation has an effect on the properties and activity of the AR. It has been shown that the AR is a phosphoprotein (21,22) and extra phosphorylation of the AR is induced when cells are exposed to androgens, in addition to the so-called basal AR phosphorylation observed in the absence of androgens(23). Phosphorylation occurs predominantly at serine residues, which are mainly located in the N-terminal domain.

[...] (24,25).


19) Fu, M., Wang, C., Wang, J., Zhang, X., Sakamaki, T., Yeung, Y. G., Chang, C., Hopp, T., Fuqua, S. A., Jaffray, E. et al. (2002) Androgen receptor acetylation governs trans activation and MEKK1-induced apoptosis without affecting in vitro sumoylation and trans-repression function. Mol. Cell. Biol. 22, 3373–3388

20) Poukka, H., Karvonen, U., Janne, O. A. and Palvimo, J. J. (2000) Covalent modification of the androgen receptor by small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO-1). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 14145–14150

21) van Laar, J. H., Bolt-de Vries, J., Zegers, N. D., Trapman, J. and Brinkmann, A. O. (1990) Androgen receptor heterogeneity and phosphorylation in human LNCaP cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 166, 193–200

22) van Laar, J. H., Berrevoets, C. A., Trapman, J., Zegers, N. D. and Brinkmann, A. O. (1991) Hormone-dependent androgen receptor phosphorylation is accompanied by receptor transformation in human lymph node carcinoma of the prostate cells. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 3734–3738

23) Gioeli, D., Ficarro, S. B., Kwiek, J. J., Aaronson, D., Hancock, M., Catling, A. D., White, F. M., Christian, R. E., Settlage, R. E., Shabanowitz, J. et al. (2002) Androgen receptor phosphorylation. Regulation and identification of the phosphorylation sites. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 29304–29314.

24) Kuiper, G. G. and Brinkmann, A. O. (1995) Phosphotryptic peptide analysis of the human androgen receptor: detection of a hormone-induced phosphopeptide. Biochemistry 34, 1851–1857

25) Kuiper, G. G., de Ruiter, P. E., Trapman, J., Boersma, W. J., Grootegoed, J. A. and Brinkmann, A. O. (1993) Localization and hormonal stimulation of phosphorylation sites in the LNCaP-cell androgen receptor. Biochem. J. 291, 95–101

Post-translational modifications such as acetylation and sumoylation have been shown to influence the transactivation potential of the AR [12,13]. However, it is not clear whether phosphorylation has an effect on the properties and activity of the AR. It has been shown that the AR is a phosphoprotein [14,15] and extra phosphorylation of the AR is induced when cells are exposed to androgens, in addition to the so-called basal AR phosphorylation observed in the absence of androgens [15,16]. Phosphorylation occurs predominantly at serine residues [16,17], which are mainly located in the N-terminal domain [18].

12 Fu, M., Wang, C., Wang, J., Zhang, X., Sakamaki, T., Yeung, Y. G., Chang, C., Hopp, T., Fuqua, S. A., Jaffray, E. et al. (2002) Androgen receptor acetylation governs trans activation and MEKK1-induced apoptosis without affecting in vitro sumoylation and trans-repression function. Mol. Cell. Biol. 22, 3373–3388

13 Poukka, H., Karvonen, U., Janne, O. A. and Palvimo, J. J. (2000) Covalent modification of the androgen receptor by small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO-1). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 14145–14150

14 van Laar, J. H., Bolt-de Vries, J., Zegers, N. D., Trapman, J. and Brinkmann, A. O. (1990) Androgen receptor heterogeneity and phosphorylation in human LNCaP cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 166, 193–200

15 van Laar, J. H., Berrevoets, C. A., Trapman, J., Zegers, N. D. and Brinkmann, A. O. (1991) Hormone-dependent androgen receptor phosphorylation is accompanied by receptor transformation in human lymph node carcinoma of the prostate cells. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 3734–3738

16 Gioeli, D., Ficarro, S. B., Kwiek, J. J., Aaronson, D., Hancock, M., Catling, A. D., White, F. M., Christian, R. E., Settlage, R. E., Shabanowitz, J. et al. (2002) Androgen receptor phosphorylation. Regulation and identification of the phosphorylation sites. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 29304–29314

17 Kuiper, G. G. and Brinkmann, A. O. (1995) Phosphotryptic peptide analysis of the human androgen receptor: detection of a hormone-induced phosphopeptide. Biochemistry 34, 1851–1857

18 Kuiper, G. G., de Ruiter, P. E., Trapman, J., Boersma, W. J., Grootegoed, J. A. and Brinkmann, A. O. (1993) Localization and hormonal stimulation of phosphorylation sites in the LNCaP-cell androgen receptor. Biochem. J. 291, 95–101

Anmerkungen

Identical, with identical references. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02

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