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Permeation of Organometallic Compounds through Phospholipid Membranes

von Dr. Raycho Yonchev

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[1.] Ry/Fragment 003 02 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-02-08 08:22:07 Klgn
Anézo 2003, Fragment, Gesichtet, Ry, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
SleepyHollow02
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 3, Zeilen: 2-20
Quelle: Anézo 2003
Seite(n): 9 ff., Zeilen: 9: 12 ff.; 10: 20 ff.; 11: 1 ff.
I. Introduction and motivation of the thesis

I.1. Biomembranes

I.1.1 Structure and composition

Each cell is enclosed by lipid membrane, which assures a barrier between intracellular and extracellular environments and controls interactions and substance exchange between the cell and its surroundings. This description is valid for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

On the molecular level biological membranes are too complex – they are composed of specific mixtures of lipids and proteins, which account for their diverse functions. Despite their complex composition, all biomembranes exhibit a universal construction principle. They essentially consist of a two dimensional matrix made up of a lipid bilayers, interrupted and coated by proteins. The hydrocarbon chains of the lipids confer a hydrophobic character on the membrane interior, whereas the polar headgroups found in the internal region have hydrophilic properties. This structural pattern results directly from the hydrophobic effect, whereby the non-polar lipid chains and the hydrophobic side chains of amino acid residues tend to minimize contacts with the aqueous phase. The components of the matrix are held together largely by non-covalent forces. Thus, biomembranes are not rigid structures, but are rather deformable. The hydrophobic effect accounts for most of the interaction energy that stabilizes the bilayer organization. Hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions contribute significantly to the [consolidation of this assembly in the interfacial region, while dispersive forces between the lipid hydrocarbon chains stabilize the core of the membrane.]

1.1 Biomembranes

1.1.1 Organization, structure, and functions

1.1.1.1 Organization

Each biological cell is enclosed by its outer plasma membrane which provides a barrier between intracellular and extracellular domains and controls interactions between the cell and its surroundings. This description applies both to the relatively small prokaryotic cells, which have no cell nucleus, and to the much larger eukaryotic cells, which do have such a nucleus.

[page 10:]

1.1.1.2 Structure

On the molecular level, biological membranes are quite complex: they are composed of specific mixtures of lipids and proteins, which account for their diverse functions. Despite their complex composition, all biomembranes exhibit a universal construction principle. They essentially consist of a two-dimensional matrix made up of a lipid bilayer, interrupted and coated by proteins. The hydrocarbon chains of the lipids confer a hydrophobic character on the membrane interior, whereas the polar headgroups found in the interfacial region have hydrophilic properties. This structural pattern results directly from the so-called hydrophobic effect (see Section 1.2.1, page 28, for more details), whereby the apolar lipid chains and the hydrophobic side-chains of amino acid residues in proteins tend to minimize contacts with the aqueous phase. Figure 1.1 provides a simplified but informative picture of membrane structure.

[page 11:]

The components of the bilayer matrix are held together largely by non-covalent forces. Thus, biomembranes are not rigid structures, but are rather deformable. The hydrophobic effect accounts for most of the interaction energy that stabilizes the bilayer organization. Hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions, however, contribute significantly to the consolidation of this assembly in the interfacial region, while dispersive forces between the lipid hydrocarbon chains stabilize the core of the membrane.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02), Hindemith


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