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Permeation of Organometallic Compounds through Phospholipid Membranes

von Dr. Raycho Yonchev

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[1.] Ry/Fragment 031 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-02-05 07:01:33 Klgn
Anézo 2003, Fragment, Gesichtet, Ry, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
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SleepyHollow02
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 31, Zeilen: 1 ff. (entire page)
Quelle: Anézo 2003
Seite(n): 44 f., 51, Zeilen: 44: 27 ff.; 45: 1 ff.; 51: 7 ff.
[Others include light energy] or the energy stored in ion gradients. Primary active transport processes, which use a direct source of energy, can be distinguished from secondary active transport processes, which are generally coupled with ion gradients (that have been generated by a primary active transport) to achieve for instance the transport of metabolites. Most of the chemical energy in the live organisms is used up to reestablish ion gradients, gradients that keep metabolic processes going, including signaling mechanisms. Primary active transporters are mostly ion pump, where ion translocation is mechanically coupled to en [sic] energy-yielding chemical or photochemical reaction. Na+/K+-ATPase, also called sodium pump, is one of the most important enzymes in the plasma membranes of animal cells. This enzyme pumps sodium ions out of the cells and potassium ions into the cell, both against their respective concentration gradients, catalyzing the hydrolysis of ATP and making use of the released energy. Primary active transporters are used to generate voltage and ion gradients across the membrane and secondary active transporters utilize such gradients to drive solute transport.

I.4. Aim of the thesis

The description of transport processes first requires a good knowledge of the nature of the permeation barriers. Biological membranes contain a large number of lipid species as well as integral and peripheral proteins. The fluid lipid bilayer represents the core of the membrane and acts as permeation barrier. In spite of their complex and heterogeneous character, biological membranes can be modeled by simple phospholipid bilayers, which reproduce the main membrane properties.

Most compounds permeate passively across the lipid part of membranes and their permeation rates depend on their own chemical and physical properties as well as on the macroscopic properties of the considered membrane. Since all macroscopic properties of membranes are determined by the microscopic behavior of the lipid components, a detailed knowledge of the membrane features at a molecular level forms the necessary basis for understanding permeation mechanisms.

Others include light energy or the energy stored in ion gradients. Primary active transport processes, which use a direct source of energy, can be distinguished from secondary active transport processes, which are generally coupled with ion gradients (that have been generated by a primary active transport) to achieve for instance the transport of metabolites. Most of the chemical energy in the body is used up to reestablish ion gradients, gradients that keep metabolic processes going, including signaling mechanisms. Primary active transporters are mostly ion pumps, where ion


[page 45:]

translocation is mechanistically coupled to an energy-yielding chemical or photochemical reaction. Na+/K+-ATPase, also called sodium pump, is one of the most important enzymes in the plasma membranes of animal cells. This enzyme pumps sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell, both against their respective concentration gradients, catalyzing the hydrolysis of ATP and making use of the released energy. Primary active transporters are used to generate voltage and ion gradients across the membrane and secondary active transporters utilize such gradients to drive solute transport.

[page 51:]

The description of transport processes first requires a good knowledge of the nature of the permeation barriers. Biological membranes contain a large number of lipid species as well as integral and peripheral proteins. The fluid lipid bilayer represents the core of the membrane and acts as permeation barrier. In spite of their complex and heterogeneous character, biological membranes can be modeled by simple phospholipid bilayers which reproduce the main membrane properties.

Most drugs permeate passively across the lipid part of membranes and their permeation rates depend on their own chemical and physical properties as well as on the macroscopic properties of the considered membrane. Since all macroscopic properties of membranes are determined by the microscopic behavior of the lipid components, a detailed knowledge of the membrane features at a molecular level forms the necessary basis for understanding permeation mechanisms.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02), Klgn


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