Fandom

VroniPlag Wiki

Ry/Fragment 010 01

< Ry

31.360Seiten in
diesem Wiki
Seite hinzufügen
Diskussion0 Share

Störung durch Adblocker erkannt!


Wikia ist eine gebührenfreie Seite, die sich durch Werbung finanziert. Benutzer, die Adblocker einsetzen, haben eine modifizierte Ansicht der Seite.

Wikia ist nicht verfügbar, wenn du weitere Modifikationen in dem Adblocker-Programm gemacht hast. Wenn du sie entfernst, dann wird die Seite ohne Probleme geladen.


Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Klgn
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 10, Zeilen: 1 ff. (entire page)
Quelle: Anézo 2003
Seite(n): 24, 25, Zeilen: 24:28-30; 25:1ff
In 1925, Gorter and Grendel introduced for the first time the concept of lipid bilayers as structural basis of biomembranes [4]. They postulated that lipids in the human erythrocyte membrane are organized in the form of a bimolecular leaflet or lipid bilayers.

In 1935, Davson and Danielli made a major contribution to the development of membrane models [5]. They found that a membrane such as the erythrocyte contains, besides lipids, a significant amount of proteins and included, therefore, proteins in their model. They suggested that proteins coat the surface of the lipid bilayers. This description was motivated by the new (at that time) knowledge of the β-sheet structure. In this model, the protein was thus not allowed to penetrate into the bilayers.

In the 1960’s and 1970’s, new molecular insights into biological membranes were gained by the emergence of more sophisticated experimental techniques. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed the existence of globular particles embedded within the lipid bilayers. Spectroscopic methods indicated that membrane proteins had an appreciable amount of α-helixes and that they were likely globular. The characterization of hydrophobic domains in membrane proteins also stimulated the integration of proteins into the membrane interior. At the same time, nuclear magnetic resonance measurements pointed out the fluid character of the lipid bilayers.

In 1996 [sic], Green and co-workers attempted to integrate the protein structure into the membrane in a model built around lipid-protein complexes as the fundamental structural pattern [6]. Although this model did not give prominence to the lipid bilayers as the basic structure of the membrane, it did incorporate proteins inside the membrane structure, introducing the concept of integral membrane proteins.

In 1970, Frye and Edidin performed a series of experiments on cell membrane fusion and suggested that membrane components can move laterally in the plane of the membrane [7].

In 1972, Singer and Nicolson amalgamated all these experimental observations and conceived a new model for the membrane structure, so called fluid mosaic model [8]. This model described the biological membrane as a two-dimensional fluid or liquid crystal in which lipids as well as protein components are constrained within the plane of the membrane, but are free to diffuse laterally. The notions of integral and peripheral [membrane proteins were asserted and it was also suggested that some proteins might pass completely through the membrane.]


4. Gorter, E.; Grendel, F. J. Exp. Med. 1925, 41, 439.

5. Danielli, J. F.; Davson, H. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 1935, 5, 495.

6. Green, D. E.; Perdue, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1996 [sic], 55, 1295.

7. Frye, L. D.; Edidin, M. J. Cell. Sci. 1970, 7, 319.

8. Singer, S. J.; Nicolson, G. L. Science 1972, 175 , 720.

[page 24]

In 1925, Gorter and Grendel introduced for the first time the concept of lipid bilayer as structural basis of biomembranes [14]. They postulated that lipids in the human erythrocyte membrane are organized in the form of a bimolecular leaflet or lipid bilayer.

[page 25]

In 1935, Davson and Danielli made a major contribution to the development of membrane models [15]. They found that a membrane such as the erythrocyte contains, besides lipids, a significant amount of proteins and included, therefore, proteins in their model. They suggested that proteins coat the surface of the lipid bilayer. This description was motivated by the new (at that time) knowledge of the β-sheet structure. In this model, the protein was thus not allowed to penetrate into the lipid bilayer.

In the 1960’s and 1970’s, new molecular insights into biological membranes were gained by the emergence of more sophisticated experimental techniques. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed the existence of globular particles embedded within the lipid bilayer. Spectroscopic methods indicated that membrane proteins had an appreciable amount of α-helixes and that they were likely globular. The characterization of hydrophobic domains in membrane proteins also stimulated the integration of proteins into the membrane interior. At the same time, nuclear magnetic resonance measurements pointed out the fluid character of the lipid bilayer.

In 1966, Green and co-workers attempted to integrate the protein structure into the membrane in a model built around lipid-protein complexes as the fundamental structural pattern [16]. Although this model did not give prominence to the lipid bilayer as the basic structure of the membrane, it did incorporate proteins inside the membrane structure, introducing the concept of integral membrane proteins.

In 1970, Frye and Edidin performed a series of experiments on cell membrane fusion and suggested that membrane components can move laterally in the plane of the membrane [17].

In 1972, Singer and Nicolson amalgamated all these experimental observations and conceived a new model for the membrane structure, the so-called fluid mosaic model [18]. This model described the biological membrane as a two-dimensional fluid or liquid crystal in which lipid as well as protein components are constrained within the plane of the membrane, but are free to diffuse laterally. The notions of integral and peripheral membrane proteins were asserted and it was also suggested that some proteins may pass completely through the membrane.


[14] E. Gorter and F. Grendel. J. Exp. Med., 41:439–443, 1925.

[15] J. F. Danielli and H. Davson. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 5:495–508, 1935.

[16] D. E. Green and J. Perdue. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 55:1295–1302, 1966.

[17] L. D. Frye and M. Edidin. J. Cell. Sci., 7:319–335, 1970.

[18] S. J. Singer and G. L. Nicolson. Science, 175:720–731, 1972.

Anmerkungen

No source is given. The year given for Green & Perdue is mistyped to be 30 years later than the paper was indeed published.

Sichter
(Klgn), WiseWoman

Auch bei Fandom

Zufälliges Wiki