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Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Klgn
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 15, Zeilen: 1 ff. (entire page)
Quelle: Anézo 2003
Seite(n): 29, 30, Zeilen: 29:11ff; 30:1ff
[Each morphology is stabilized by a balance between favorable and unfavorable] interactions, resulting directly from an optimization of the hydrophobic effect with a variety of intramolecular and intermolecular interactions.

Crystalline phases

At low temperatures and/or hydration levels, most phospholipids form crystalline lamellar phases, denoted LC. These phases are true crystals, exhibiting both long-range and short-range order in the three dimensions. They may be anhydrous, or may contain a certain number of water molecules of co-crystallization. The phospholipid hydrocarbon chains are in an all-trans conformation.

Gel phases

Gel phases are ordered lamellar phases in which phospholipid molecules undergo hindered long-axis rotation on a time scale of 100 ns and in which the hydrocarbon chains adopt essentially an all trans conformation. Such gel phases are formed at low temperatures in the presence of water, although the water content is often relatively low. In the Lβ gel phase, the hydrocarbon chains are arranged parallel to the bilayers normal. In the Lβ phase, the chains are tilted with respect to the bilayers normal. The tilting occurs when the cross-sectional area required by the headgroup exceeds about twice that required by the acyl chains. The chain tilt increases the cross-sectional area of the acyl chains and allows thus the packing mismatch to be accommodated. When the tilting becomes too great, the (untilted) interdigitated LβI phase may occur.

An intermediate phase Pβ between the gel phase Lβ and the liquid crystalline phase Lα is found in the gel phase of a few phospholipids. This is a rippled phase in which the lamellae are deformed by a periodic modulation, with the chains being essentially in a tilted conformation.

The different gel phases are depicted in Figure 1.3.

[page 29]

Each morphology is stabilized by a balance between favorable and unfavorable interactions, resulting directly from an optimization of the hydrophobic effect, with a variety of intramolecular and intermolecular interactions.

1.2.2.1 Crystalline phases

At low temperatures and/or hydration levels, most phospholipids form crystalline lamellar phases, denoted Lc. These phases are true crystals, exhibiting both long-range and short-range order in the three dimensions. They may be anhydrous, or may contain a certain number of water molecules of co-crystallization. The phospholipid hydrocarbon chains are in an all-trans conformation.

1.2.2.2 Gel phases

Gel phases are ordered lamellar phases in which phospholipid molecules undergo hindered long-axis rotation on a time scale of 100 ns and in which the hydrocarbon chains adopt essentially an all-trans conformation. Such gel phases are formed at low temperatures in the presence of water, although the water content is often relatively low.

In the Lβ gel phase, the hydrocarbon chains are arranged parallel to the bilayer normal. In the Lβ' phase, the chains are tilted with respect to the bilayer normal. The tilting occurs when the cross-sectional area required by the headgroup exceeds about twice that required by the acyl chains. The chain tilt increases the cross-sectional area of the acyl chains, and

[page 30]

allows thus the packing mismatch to be accommodated. When the tilting becomes too great, the (untilted) interdigitated LβI phase may occur.

An intermediate phase Pβ' between the gel phase Lβ and the liquid crystalline phase Lα (see next section) is found in the gel phase of a few phospholipids. This is a rippled phase in which the lamellae are deformed by a periodic modulation, with the chains being essentially in a tilted conformation.

The different gel phases are depicted in Figure 1.9.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Klgn), WiseWoman

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