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Semantic Interoperability of Ambient Intelligent Medical Devices and e-Health Systems

von Dr. Safdar Ali

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[1.] Saa/Fragment 017 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-09-14 17:18:03 Singulus
Cabral et al 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Saa, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 17, Zeilen: 1-18
Quelle: Cabral et al 2004
Seite(n): 225-226, Zeilen: 225:38-39 - 226:1-19
[Whilst promising to revolutionize e-Commerce and enterprise-wide integration, current standard technologies for Web Services, i.e. WSDL provide only syntactic-level descrip]tions of their functionalities, without any formal definition to what the syntactic definitions might mean. In many cases, Web Services offer little more than a formally defined invocation interface, with some human oriented meta-data that describes what the service does, and which organization developed it, i.e. through UDDI [35] descriptions. The software applications may invoke Web Services using a common, extendible communication framework, i.e. SOAP [33]. However, the lack of machine-readable semantics necessitates human intervention for automated service discovery and composition within open systems, thus hampering their usage in complex business contexts.

Semantic Web Services (SWS) [44] relax this restriction by augmenting Web Services with rich formal descriptions of their capabilities, thus facilitating automated composition, discovery, dynamic binding, and invocation of services within an open environment. A prerequisite to this, however, is the emergence and evolution of the Semantic Web [38], which provides the infrastructure for the semantic interoperability of Web Services. Web Services will be augmented with rich formal descriptions of their capabilities, such that they can be utilized by software applications or other services without (or less) human assistance or highly constrained agreements on interfaces or protocols. Thus, SWSs have the potential to change the way knowledge and business services are consumed and provided on the current Web.


[33] SOAP 1.2 Part 1, W3C Working Draft; http://www.w3.org/TR/soap12-part1/

[35] Universal Description, Discovery and Integration specifications; http://www.uddi.org/specification.html

[38] T. Berners-Lee, J. Hendler and O. Lassila; The Semantic Web, Scientific American 284(5):34-43, 2001

[44] Semantic Web Services; http://www.daml.org/services/

[Seite 225]

Whilst promising to revolutionize eCommerce and enterprise-wide integration, current standard technologies for Web services (e.g. WSDL [6]) provide only syntac-

[Seite 226]

tic-level descriptions of their functionalities, without any formal definition to what the syntactic definitions might mean. In many cases, Web services offer little more than a formally defined invocation interface, with some human oriented metadata that describes what the service does, and which organization developed it (e.g. through UDDI descriptions). Applications may invoke Web services using a common, extendable communication framework (e.g. SOAP). However, the lack of machine readable semantics necessitates human intervention for automated service discovery and composition within open systems, thus hampering their usage in complex business contexts.

Semantic Web Services (SWS) relax this restriction by augmenting Web services with rich formal descriptions of their capabilities, thus facilitating automated composition, discovery, dynamic binding, and invocation of services within an open environment A prerequisite to this, however, is the emergence and evolution of the Semantic Web, which provides the infrastructure for the semantic interoperability of Web Services. Web Services will be augmented with rich formal descriptions of their capabilities, such that they can be utilized by applications or other services without human assistance or highly constrained agreements on interfaces or protocols. Thus, Semantic Web Services have the potential to change the way knowledge and business services are consumed and provided on the Web.


6. Christensen, E. Curbera, F., Meredith, G., Weerawarana, S. Web Services Description Language (WSDL), W3C Note 15. http://www.w3.org/TR/wsdl. (2001)

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[2.] Saa/Fragment 017 19 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-11-23 04:46:42 Hindemith
Cabral et al 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Saa, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 17, Zeilen: 19-43
Quelle: Cabral et al 2004
Seite(n): 230, Zeilen: 11ff
2.4.1 Why Semantic Web Services?

Semantic descriptions of Web Services are necessary in order to enable their automatic discovery, composition and execution across heterogeneous users and domains. Present technologies for Web Services provide descriptions only at the syntactic level, which makes it diffcult [sic] for the requesters and providers to interpret or represent nontrivial statements, i.e. the meaning of inputs and outputs or applicable constraints. This limitation may be relaxed by providing a rich set of semantic annotations that augment the service description. A Semantic Web Service is defined through a service ontology, which enables machine interpret-ability of its capabilities as well as integration with domain knowledge. The deployment of Semantic Web Services will rely on the further development and combination of Web Services and Semantic Web enabling technologies. Several initiatives have been started in the industry and academia, e.g. DIP [45], SWSI [46] which are investigating solutions for the main issues regarding the infrastructure for SWS. Fig. 2.4 shows the following three orthogonal dimensions as characterization of Semantic Web Service infrastructure:

Usage activities define the functional requirements, which a framework for Semantic Web Services ought to support.

Architecture of SWSs describes the components needed for accomplishing the activities defined for SWS.

Service ontology aggregates all concept models related to the description of a Semantic Web Service and constitutes the knowledge-level model of the information describing and supporting the usage of the service.

Usage Activities

From the usage activities perspective, SWS are seen as objects within a business application execution scenario. The activities required for running an application using SWS [include: publishing, discovery, selection, composition, invocation, deployment and ontology management, as described next.]


[45] Data, Information and Process Integration with Semantic Web Services (DIP); http://dip.semanticweb.org

[46] Semantic Web Service Initiative (SWSI); http://www.swsi.org

4 Semantic Web Services

Semantic descriptions of Web services are necessary in order to enable their automatic discovery, composition and execution across heterogeneous users and domains. Existing technologies for Web services only provide descriptions at the syntactic level, making it difficult for requesters and providers to interpret or represent nontrivial statements such as the meaning of inputs and outputs or applicable constraints. This limitation may be relaxed by providing a rich set of semantic annotations that augment the service description. A Semantic Web Service is defined through a service ontology, which enables machine interpretability of its capabilities as well as integration with domain knowledge.

The deployment of Semantic Web Services will rely on the further development and combination of Web Services and Semantic Web enabling technologies. There exist several initiatives (e.g. http://dip.semanticweb.org or http://www.swsi.org) taking place in industry and academia, which are investigating solutions for the main issues regarding the infrastructure for SWS.

Semantic Web Service infrastructures can be characterized along three orthogonal dimensions (fig. 4): usage activities, architecture and service ontology. These dimensions relate to the requirements for SWS at business, physical and conceptual levels. Usage activities define the functional requirements, which a framework for Semantic Web Services ought to support. The architecture of SWS defines the components needed for accomplishing these activities. The service ontology aggregates all concept models related to the description of a Semantic Web Service, and constitutes the knowledge-level model of the information describing and supporting the usage of the service.

From the usage activities perspective, SWS are seen as objects within a business application execution scenario. The activities required for running an application using SWS include: publishing, discovery, selection, composition, invocation, deployment and ontology management, as described next.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith


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