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Semantic Interoperability of Ambient Intelligent Medical Devices and e-Health Systems

von Dr. Safdar Ali

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[1.] Saa/Fragment 022 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-11-23 05:55:19 Hindemith
Cabral et al 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Saa, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 22, Zeilen: 1-25
Quelle: Cabral et al 2004
Seite(n): 235, Zeilen: 9ff
WSMF is the product of research on modeling of reusable knowledge components. WSMF is centered on two complementary principles: a strong de-coupling of the various components that realize an e-commerce application; and a strong mediation service enabling Web Services to communicate in a scalable manner. The mediation is applied at several levels: mediation of data structures; mediation of business logics; mediation of message exchange protocols; and mediation of dynamic service invocation. WSMF consists of four main elements: ontologies that provide the terminology used by other elements; goal repositories that define the problems that should be solved by Web Services; Web Services descriptions that define various aspects of a Web Service; and mediators which bypass interoperability problems.

WSMF implementation has been assigned to two main projects: Semantic Web enabled Web Services (SWWS) [53], and Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO) [54]. SWWS provides a description framework, a discovery framework and a mediation platform for Web Services, according to a conceptual architecture. WSMO refines the Web Services Modeling Framework and develops a formal service ontology and language for SWS. WSMO Service Ontology includes definitions for goals, mediators and Web Services. The underlying representation language for WSMO is F-logic because it is a full first order logic language that provides second order syntax while staying in the first order logic semantics, and has a minimal model semantics. The main characterizing feature of the WSMO architecture is that the goal, Web Service and ontology components are linked by four types of mediators as follows:

OO mediators link ontologies to ontologies

WW mediators link Web Services to Web Services

WG mediators link Web Services to goals

GG mediators link goals to goals.


[53] Semantic Web enabled Web Services (SWWS); http://swws.semanticweb.org/

[54] Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO); http://www.wsmo.org/

WSMF is the product of research on modelling of reusable knowledge components [10].

WSMF is centered on two complementary principles: a strong de-coupling of the various components that realize an e-commerce application; and a strong mediation service enabling Web services to communicate in a scalable manner. Mediation is applied at several levels: mediation of data structures; mediation of business logics; mediation of message exchange protocols; and mediation of dynamic service invocation.

WSMF consists of four main elements: ontologies that provide the terminology used by other elements; goal repositories that define the problems that should be solved by Web services; Web services descriptions that define various aspects of a Web service; and mediators which bypass interoperability problems.

WSMF implementation has been assigned to two main projects: Semantic Web enabled Web Services (SWWS) [25]; and WSMO (Web Service Modelling Ontology) [28]. SWWS will provide a description framework, a discovery framework and a mediation platform for Web Services, according to a conceptual architecture. WSMO will refine WSMF and develop a formal service ontology and language for SWS.

WSMO service ontology includes definitions for goals, mediators and web services. A web service consists of a capability and an interface. The underlying representation language for WSMO is F-logic. The rationale for the choice of F-logic is that it is a full first order logic language that provides second order syntax while staying in the first order logic semantics, and has a minimal model semantics. The main characterizing feature of the WSMO architecture is that the goal, web service and ontology components are linked by four types of mediators as follows:

• OO mediators link ontologies to ontologies,

• WW mediators link web services to web services,

• WG mediators link web services to goals, and finally,

• GG mediators link goals to goals.


10. Fensel, D. and Motta, E.: Structured Development of Problem Solving Methods. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol. 13(6). (2001). 913-932.

25. SWWS Consortium. Report on Development of Web Service Discovery Framework. October 2003. http://swws.semanticweb.org/public_doc/D3.1.pdf

28. WSMO Working Group. Web Service Modelling Ontology Project. DERI Working Drafts. http://www.nextwebgeneration.org/projects/wsmo/ (2004)

Anmerkungen

Fast vollständig wörtlich übereinstimmend, aber dennoch ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

(Sichtung mit [1], Zeilenangaben der Quelle daher nicht überprüft)

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[2.] Saa/Fragment 022 26 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2015-05-17 09:54:12 Hindemith
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Klusch 2008, SMWFragment, Saa, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 22, Zeilen: 26-33, 37-47
Quelle: Klusch 2008
Seite(n): 55, 56, Zeilen: 55: 16-19, 23-30; 56: 1ff
WSML allows to describe a SWS in terms of its functionality (service capability), imported ontologies, and the interface through which it can be accessed for orchestration and choreography. The syntax of WSML is mainly derived from F-Logic extended with more verbose keywords (e.g., "hasValue" for ->, "p memberOf T" for p:T etc.), and has a normative human-readable syntax, as well as an XML and RDF syntax for exchange between machines. WSML comes in five variants with respect to the logical expressions allowed to describe the semantics of service and goal description elements, namely WSMLCore, WSML-DL, WSML-Flight, WSML-Rule and WSML-Full.

Though WSML has a special focus on annotating Semantic Web Services like OWLS, it tries to cover more representational aspects from knowledge representation and reasoning under both classical FOL and nonmononotic LP semantics. For example, WSML-DL is a decidable variant of F-Logic(FO) with expressivity close to the description logic SHOIN(D), that is the variant OWL-DL of the standard ontology Web language OWL. WSML-Flight is a decidable Datalog variant of F-Logic(LP) (functionfree, non-recursive and DL-safe Datalog rules) with (nonmonotonic) default negation under perfect model semantics of locally stratified F-Logic programs with ground entailment. WSML-Rule is a fully-edged logic programming language with function symbols, arbitrary rules with inequality and nonmontonic negation, and meta-modeling elements such as treating concepts as instances, but does not feature existentials, strict (monotonic) negation, and equality reasoning. The semantics of WSML-Rule is defined through a mapping to undecidable (nonmonotonic, recursive) F-Logic(LP) variant with inequality and default negation under well-founded semantics [368].

WSML is particularly designed for describing a Semantic Web Service in terms of its functionality (service capability), imported ontologies in WSML, and the interface through which it can be accessed for the purpose of orchestration and choreography. [...]

[...]

The syntax of WSML is mainly derived from F-Logic extended with more verbose keywords and varies with respect to the logical expressions allowed to describe the semantics of service and goal description elements. WSML has a normative human-readable syntax, as well as an XML and an RDF syntax for exchange between machines. The language comes in different variants each grounded on a particular logic with different expressivity and computational complexity, namely, DL (WSML-DL), LP (WSML-Flight, WSML-Rule), and nonmonotonic logic (WSML-Full) (cf. Figure 3.10).

[Seite 56]

2. WSML-DL is a decidable DL variant of F-Logic, extending WSML-Core to SHIQ(D) that subsumes SHIF(D) underlying OWL-Lite and is subsumed by SHOIN(D) underlying OWL-DL. The model-theoretic semantics of WSMLDL generalizes that of WSML-Core and is defined through a mapping to function-free PL1 with equality. WSML-DL provides only limited modeling of restrictions (no closed world constraints) and no arbitrary rules.

3. WSML-Flight is a decidable Datalog variant of F-Logic (function-free, nonrecursive and DL-safe rules). Its modeling primitives allow to specify different aspects of attributes, such as value constraints and integrity constraints (via built-ins), while safe Datalog rules extended with inequality and (locally) stratified negation allow efficient decidable reasoning. In other words, in WSML-FLight, concepts, instances and attributes are interpreted as objects in F-Logic with (nonmonotonic) default negation under perfect model semantics [22] of locally stratified F-Logic programs with ground entailment.

4. WSML-Rule extends WSML-Flight to a fully-fledged LP language, i.e. with function symbols and allowing arbitrary, unsafe rules with inequality and unstratified negation. It also provides meta modeling such as treating concepts as instances, but does not feature existentials, classical (monotonic) negation, and equality reasoning. The semantics of WSML-Rule is defined in the same way as WSML-Flight but through a mapping to full LP, that is to the Horn fragment of F-Logic extended with inequality and default negation under well-founded semantics [26] in the body of the rule instead of through a mapping to Datalog. In brief, the semantics of WSML-Rule bases on the well-founded semantics applied to the LP fragment of F-Logic [27].


[27] T. Di Noia, E. Di Sciascio, F.M. Donini: Semantic Matchmaking as Non-Monotonic Reasoning: A Description Logic Approach. Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR), 29:269–307, 2007.

Anmerkungen

Einen Eintrag "[368]" gibt es im Literaturverzeichnis nicht.

Ohne direkten Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Auf Seite 20 (Z. 4-6) wird eine von Matthias Klusch verfasste Quelle erwähnt: "In the following sections, we briefly describe these approaches by taking the text snippets from [43], and refer the reader to this for detailed description."


[43] Matthias Klusch, On Agent-Based Semantic Service Coordination, Cumulative Habilitation Script 2008.

Mit Blick hierauf ist auch eine Einordnung als kW denkbar.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), (Hindemith), SleepyHollow02


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