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Semantic Interoperability of Ambient Intelligent Medical Devices and e-Health Systems

von Dr. Safdar Ali

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Statistik und Sichtungsnachweis dieser Seite findet sich am Artikelende
[1.] Saa/Fragment 024 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-11-23 18:44:08 Graf Isolan
BauernOpfer, Bishaj 2007, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Saa, Schutzlevel sysop

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Bearbeiter
Hindemith
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 24, Zeilen: 1ff (komplett)
Quelle: Bishaj 2007
Seite(n): 1, 2, 3, Zeilen: 1: r. Spalte: 25-42; 2: l. Spalte: 1-19.21ff.; 3: l. Spalte: 25-30.40ff.
[XML is used in UPnP in device and service descriptions, control] messages and eventing. The advertisement message that a device issues contains a URL that directs to an XML file in the network, which describes the capabilities of the device. Each UPnP device must be a DHCP client and search for a DHCP server when connected to a network. In the lack of a DHCP server it must use Auto IP to get an address: the device randomly chooses an address, and then makes an ARP request to see if it is already occupied. This mechanism minimizes administration requirements.

2.5.2 Jini

Jini [57] is a network architecture for distributed systems, developed by Sun Microsystems in Java. The aim of this architecture is to make the network dynamic and self-administered, where services are added and deleted in a flexible manner. More precisely, the purpose is to end up with a monolithic system where users are able to not only share services and resources in a network, but have easy access to the services, even though the user's location may change. In a way, Jini can be considered as an extension of the Java application environment from a single machine to the whole network. Jini is based on Java environment, which offers built-in security for executing code from another machine and adds functionality on top of that to support the moving of components in a distributed system, as compared to the easy movement of objects in a Java application environment.

Jini makes the assumption that the devices connected to the network have a certain memory capacity and processing power. The limitation on the devices that can be connected directly to the network is a Java legacy; the devices need to have the JVM. Other devices not meeting this criteria need to be presented to the network by means of a proxy, which is a piece of hardware and/or software that meets the above-mentioned requirements. The service proxy has the drawback that in order to have no need for drivers, manufacturers must agree to a common interface. This is hard to achieve for every kind of device, and is exacerbated by the fact that each device tends to encompass multiple and different functionalities. There is benefit from the JVM: it makes Jini platform independent, but the JVM is heavy for hand-held devices and embedded systems. As for Java, Jini depends on the Java application environment, rather than on the Java programming language. Any language, as claimed, producing compliant bytecode can be used. However, practically, only the Java language is used.

Services are crucial to the Jini architecture. They can be used by a person, a program, or another service. Some examples of services are: storage, a computation, a hardware device, a user, devices such as printers, software such as applications, information such as databases. A Jini system is made up of services that can be collected in order to complete a particular task. A service can use another service, a client may be a service for another client. A service protocol is used for the communication between services. The one Jini offers is a set of interfaces that define critical service interaction between services. It can be extended further. A lookup service is used to find and resolve services. What it does is a mapping of the interfaces that indicate the functionality of a service to sets of objects implementing the service. A service has to be registered in at least one lookup service. A Jini service provider registers itself with every discovered lookup service. An object can itself consist of other services, this makes room for hierarchical services and lookup. Furthermore, objects may also be the encapsulation of other naming or directory services. References to the Jini lookup system can also be placed in other naming and directory services. In this way, bridging between the Jini lookup system and other forms of lookup service is created.

The discovery, join and lookup protocols are the heart of the Jini architecture.


[57] Sun Microsystems; Jini Architecture Specification, version 1.2, December 2001. http://www.sun.com/software/jini/specs/jini1.2html/ jini-title.html, 09 April 2007.

2.1 Jini

Jini [8] is a network architecture for distributed systems; it is developed by Sun Microsystems in Java. The aim of this architecure [sic] is to make the network dynamic and self-administered, where services are added and deleted in a flexible manner. More precisely, the purpose is to end up with a system where users are able to share services and resources in a network; where users have easy access to the services, even though the user’s location may change; where building, maintaining, and changing devices, software, or users is made simple. In a way, Jini can be considered as an extension of the Java application environment from a single machine to the whole network. The Java environment, on which Jini is based, offers built-in security for executing code from another machine. Jini adds functionality on top of that to support the moving of components in a distributed system, as compared to the easy movement of objects in a Java application environment.

[Seite 2]

Jini makes the assumption that the devices connected to the network have a certain memory capacity and processing power. The limitation on the devices that can be connected directly to the network is a Java legacy; the devices need to have the JVM. Other devices not meeting this criteria need to be presented to the network by means of a proxy, which is a piece of hardware and/or software that meets the abovementioned requirements. The service proxy has the drawback that in order to have no need for drivers, manufacturers must agree to a common interface. This is hard to achieve for every kind of device, and is exacerbated by the fact that each device tends to encompass multiple and different functionalities. There is benefit from the JVM: it makes Jini platform-independent, but the JVM is heavy for handheld devices and embedded systems. As for Java, Jini depends on the Java application environment, rather than on the Java programming language. Any language, as claimed, producing compliant bytecodes can be used. However, practically, only the Java language is used. [...]

Services are crucial to the Jini architecture [8, 11]. They can be used by a person, a program, or another service. Some examples of services are: storage, a computation, a hardware device, a user, devices such as printers, software such as applications, information such as databases. A Jini system is made up of services that can be collected in order to complete a particular task. A service can use another service, a client may be a service for another client. A service protocol is used for the communication between services. The one Jini offers is a set of interfaces that define critical service interaction between services. It can be extended further.

A lookup service is used to find and resolve services. What it does is a mapping of the interfaces that indicate the functionality of a service to sets of objects implementing the service. A service has to be registered in at least one lookup service. A Jini service provider registers itself with every discovered lookup service [3]. An object can itself consist of other services, this makes room for hierarchical services and lookup. Furthermore, objects may also be the encapsulation of other naming or directory services. References to the Jini lookup system can also be placed in other naming and directory services. In this way, bridging between the Jini lookup system and other forms of lookup service is created.

The discovery, join and lookup protocols are the heart of the Jini architecture [8].


[Seite 3]

XML is used in UPnP in device and service descriptions, control messages and eventing. The advertisement message that a device issues contains a URL that directs to an XML file in the network, which describes the capabilities of the device [3].

[...]

Each UPnP device must be a DHCP client and search for a DHCP server when connected to a network. In the lack of a DHCP server it must use Auto IP to get an address: the device randomly chooses an address, and then makes an ARP request to see if it is already occupied. This mechanism minimizes administration requirements.


[3] Adrian Friday, Nigel Davies, Nat Wallbank, Elaine Catterall and Stephen Pink. Supporting Service Discovery, Querying and Interaction in Ubiquitous Computing Environments. Wireless Networks 10, 631-641, 2004.

[8] Sun Microsystems. Jini Architecture Specification, version 1.2, December 2001. http://www.sun.com/software/ jini/specs/jini1.2html/ jini-title.html, 09 April 2007.

[11] Jim Waldo. The Jini architecture for network-centric computing. Communications of the ACM, July 1999.

Anmerkungen

Ein Verweis auf die Quelle findet sich am Anfang des Kapitels auf Seite 23. Eine wörtliche Übernahme des gesamten Kapitels wird durch diesen aber in keiner Weise gekennzeichnet.

Mit der Web-Adresse hat Saa auch das Datum der letzten Einsichtnahme ("09 April 2007") aus der Vorlage kopiert.

Sichter
(Hindemith), Graf Isolan


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