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Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 22, Zeilen: 26-33, 37-47
Quelle: Klusch 2008
Seite(n): 55, 56, Zeilen: 55: 16-19, 23-30; 56: 1ff
WSML allows to describe a SWS in terms of its functionality (service capability), imported ontologies, and the interface through which it can be accessed for orchestration and choreography. The syntax of WSML is mainly derived from F-Logic extended with more verbose keywords (e.g., "hasValue" for ->, "p memberOf T" for p:T etc.), and has a normative human-readable syntax, as well as an XML and RDF syntax for exchange between machines. WSML comes in five variants with respect to the logical expressions allowed to describe the semantics of service and goal description elements, namely WSMLCore, WSML-DL, WSML-Flight, WSML-Rule and WSML-Full.

Though WSML has a special focus on annotating Semantic Web Services like OWLS, it tries to cover more representational aspects from knowledge representation and reasoning under both classical FOL and nonmononotic LP semantics. For example, WSML-DL is a decidable variant of F-Logic(FO) with expressivity close to the description logic SHOIN(D), that is the variant OWL-DL of the standard ontology Web language OWL. WSML-Flight is a decidable Datalog variant of F-Logic(LP) (functionfree, non-recursive and DL-safe Datalog rules) with (nonmonotonic) default negation under perfect model semantics of locally stratified F-Logic programs with ground entailment. WSML-Rule is a fully-edged logic programming language with function symbols, arbitrary rules with inequality and nonmontonic negation, and meta-modeling elements such as treating concepts as instances, but does not feature existentials, strict (monotonic) negation, and equality reasoning. The semantics of WSML-Rule is defined through a mapping to undecidable (nonmonotonic, recursive) F-Logic(LP) variant with inequality and default negation under well-founded semantics [368].

WSML is particularly designed for describing a Semantic Web Service in terms of its functionality (service capability), imported ontologies in WSML, and the interface through which it can be accessed for the purpose of orchestration and choreography. [...]

[...]

The syntax of WSML is mainly derived from F-Logic extended with more verbose keywords and varies with respect to the logical expressions allowed to describe the semantics of service and goal description elements. WSML has a normative human-readable syntax, as well as an XML and an RDF syntax for exchange between machines. The language comes in different variants each grounded on a particular logic with different expressivity and computational complexity, namely, DL (WSML-DL), LP (WSML-Flight, WSML-Rule), and nonmonotonic logic (WSML-Full) (cf. Figure 3.10).

[Seite 56]

2. WSML-DL is a decidable DL variant of F-Logic, extending WSML-Core to SHIQ(D) that subsumes SHIF(D) underlying OWL-Lite and is subsumed by SHOIN(D) underlying OWL-DL. The model-theoretic semantics of WSMLDL generalizes that of WSML-Core and is defined through a mapping to function-free PL1 with equality. WSML-DL provides only limited modeling of restrictions (no closed world constraints) and no arbitrary rules.

3. WSML-Flight is a decidable Datalog variant of F-Logic (function-free, nonrecursive and DL-safe rules). Its modeling primitives allow to specify different aspects of attributes, such as value constraints and integrity constraints (via built-ins), while safe Datalog rules extended with inequality and (locally) stratified negation allow efficient decidable reasoning. In other words, in WSML-FLight, concepts, instances and attributes are interpreted as objects in F-Logic with (nonmonotonic) default negation under perfect model semantics [22] of locally stratified F-Logic programs with ground entailment.

4. WSML-Rule extends WSML-Flight to a fully-fledged LP language, i.e. with function symbols and allowing arbitrary, unsafe rules with inequality and unstratified negation. It also provides meta modeling such as treating concepts as instances, but does not feature existentials, classical (monotonic) negation, and equality reasoning. The semantics of WSML-Rule is defined in the same way as WSML-Flight but through a mapping to full LP, that is to the Horn fragment of F-Logic extended with inequality and default negation under well-founded semantics [26] in the body of the rule instead of through a mapping to Datalog. In brief, the semantics of WSML-Rule bases on the well-founded semantics applied to the LP fragment of F-Logic [27].


[27] T. Di Noia, E. Di Sciascio, F.M. Donini: Semantic Matchmaking as Non-Monotonic Reasoning: A Description Logic Approach. Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR), 29:269–307, 2007.

Anmerkungen

Einen Eintrag "[368]" gibt es im Literaturverzeichnis nicht.

Ohne direkten Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Auf Seite 20 (Z. 4-6) wird eine von Matthias Klusch verfasste Quelle erwähnt: "In the following sections, we briefly describe these approaches by taking the text snippets from [43], and refer the reader to this for detailed description."


[43] Matthias Klusch, On Agent-Based Semantic Service Coordination, Cumulative Habilitation Script 2008.

Mit Blick hierauf ist auch eine Einordnung als kW denkbar.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), (Hindemith), SleepyHollow02

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