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Membrane androgen receptor activation triggers pro-apoptotic responses in vitro and in vivo and blocks migration in colon cancer

von S. G.

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[1.] Shg/Fragment 030 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-11-02 01:26:54 Hindemith
CellMigrationGateway 2010, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Shg

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
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Seite: 30, Zeilen: 1ff. (komplett)
Quelle: CellMigrationGateway 2010
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1.4 Cell Migration

Cells migrate in response to multiple situations they encounter during their lives. In pathology, production of abnormal migratory signals may induce the migration of the wrong cell type to the wrong place, which may have catastrophic effects on tissue homeostasis and overall health. Some examples include autoimmune syndromes in which immune cells home to certain locations (joints in rheumatoid arthritis, and the CNS in multiple sclerosis are two examples) and destroy the supporting tissue, causing severe damage; or the process of metastasis, in which tumor cells abandon the primary tumor and migrate to distant tissues where they generate secondary tumors.

There are different modes of cell migration depending on the cell type and the context in which it is migrating. Cells can move as single entities, and the specifics of their motility depend on several factors, adhesion strength and the type of external migratory signals and cues, mechanical pliability, dimensionality, and the organization of the cellular cytoskeleton. The intrinsic properties of the cell interact with the environment to produce a migratory mode or phenotype. Some tumor cells can move by extending membrane blebs, and their actin cytoskeleton is not very organized, either. They have elaborate cytoskeletal structures and adhesions, and their motion is generally slow. It is worth noting that some cell types can switch between these depending on their environment. Cells can also move in groups, including chains of cells and sheet-like layers.

It is generally convenient to parse migration into a useful set of component processes, which are often regulated by the same effectors regardless of the cell type and the mode of migration. These processes include polarization, protrusion and adhesion, translocation of the cell body and retraction of the rear. These processes are coordinated and integrated by extensive transient, signaling networks.

What is Cell Migration?

[...] Cells migrate in response to multiple situations they encounter during their lives. Some examples include: the need to feed (Dictyostelium again); morphogenetic events that require the mobilization of precursors to generate new structures/layers/organs, sometimes at distant locations (during embryogenesis, organogenesis and regeneration); or the presence of environment cues that inform the cells of the need for their movement to accomplish a larger goal (e.g. wound healing or the immune response). In pathology, production of abnormal migratory signals may induce the migration of the wrong cell type to the wrong place, which may have catastrophic effects on tissue homeostasis and overall health. Some examples include autoimmune syndromes in which immune cells home to certain locations (joints in rheumatoid arthritis, and the CNS in multiple sclerosis are two examples) and destroy the supporting tissue, causing severe damage; or the process of metastasis, in which tumor cells abandon the primary tumor and migrate to distant tissues where they generate secondary tumors.

There are different modes of cell migration depending on the cell type and the context in which it is migrating. Cells can move as single entities, and the specifics of their motility depend on several factors, e.g., adhesion strength and the type of substratum (including extracellular matrix ligands and other cells), external migratory signals and cues, mechanical pliability, dimensionality, and the organization of the cellular cytoskeleton. The intrinsic properties of the cell interact with the environment to produce a migratory mode or phenotype. For example, nimble, fast-moving and -turning cells, like immune cells, do not have a highly organized cytoskeleton and tend to adhere weakly; their motion is sometimes termed 'amoeboid'. Some tumor cells can move by extending membrane blebs, and their actin cytoskeleton is not very organized, either. Fibroblasts and epithelial precursors lie at another extreme. They have elaborate cytoskeletal structures and adhesions, and their motion is generally slow. It is worth noting that some cell types can switch between these depending on their environment. Cells can also move in groups, including chains of cells and sheet-like layers.

It is generally convenient to parse migration into a useful set of component processes, which are often regulated by the same effectors regardless of the cell type and the mode of migration. These processes include polarization, protrusion and adhesion, translocation of the cell body and retraction of the rear. These processes are coordinated and integrated by extensive transient, signaling networks.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


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