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Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
SleepyHollow02
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 17, Zeilen: 15-34
Quelle: Papadopoulou et al 2009
Seite(n): 57, Zeilen: left col., 18 ff.
In prostate cancer, expression of mAR in human tumor cells was initially reported in iAR positive LNCaP cells [Kampa M, et al 2002] and iAR –deficient DU145 cells [Hatzoglou A, et al 2005]. In LNCaP cells study, mAR activation through testosterone-BSA conjugates induced rapid PSA release, fast actin reorganization and additional cell responses like inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis [Hatzoglou A, et al 2005]. The molecular signaling pathway starts from focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Initially, FAK was rapidly phosphorylated and associated with the p85 subunit of the phosphoinositol-3-Kinase (PI-3K). Following this association, the lipid kinase activity of PI-3K and the tyrosine phosphorylation of its p85 regulatory subunit were significantly induced by mAR stimulation. PI-3K activation was accompanied by the downstream upregulation of the Rho small GTPases Cdc42, Rac1, RhoA and RhoB. Rapid activation of these GTPases resulted in actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Yet again, these effects were specific for mAR because three different steroidal and non-steroidal iAR antagonists failed to block the activation of this rapid signaling pathway [Papakonstanti, E. A., et al. 2003]. From these findings it was concluded that mAR activation induced potent apoptotic regression in LNCaP prostate tumor cells controlled by [Rho/ROCK/actin signaling.]

Kampa M, Papakonstanti EA, Hatzoglou A, Stathopoulos EN, Stournaras C, Castanas E. (2002). The human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP bears functional membrane testosterone receptors that increase PSA secretion and modify actin cytoskeleton. Faseb J, 16:1429-1431.

Hatzoglou A, Kampa M, Kogia C, Charalampopoulos I, Theodoropoulos PA, Anezinis P, Dambaki C, Papakonstanti EA, Stathopoulos EN, Stournaras C, et al. (2005). Membrane androgen receptor activation induces apoptotic regression of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 90: 893-903.

Papakonstanti, E. A., Kampa, M., Castanas, E., and Stournaras, C. (2003). A rapid, nongenomic, signaling pathway regulates the actin reorganization induced by activation of membrane testosterone receptors. Mol. Endocrinol. 17, 870–881.

Expression of mAR in human tumor cells was initially reported in iAR positive LNCaP cells (9). In this study, mAR activation through testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or TBSA conjugates induced rapid PSA release and potent and fast actin reorganization. Subsequent studies analyzed additional cell responses triggered by mAR stimulation including mAR-dependent inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis (21). [...] Analysis of the molecular signaling activated by mAR identified a novel mAR-specific non-genomic pathway operating in LNCaP cells (25, 34). Initially, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was rapidly phosphorylated and associated with the p85 subunit of the phosphoinositol-3-Kinase (PI-3K). Following this association, the lipid kinase activity of PI-3K and the tyrosine phosphorylation of its p85 regulatory subunit were significantly induced by mAR stimulation. PI-3K activation was accompanied by the downstream upregulation of the Rho small GTPases Cdc42, Rac1, RhoA and RhoB. Rapid activation of these GTPases resulted in actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Yet again, these effects were specific for mAR because three different steroidal and non-steroidal iAR antagonists failed to block the activation of this rapid signaling pathway (25). [...] From these findings it was concluded that mAR activation induces potent apoptotic regression in LNCaP prostate tumor cells controlled by Rho/ROCK/actin signaling.

9. Kampa, M., Papakonstanti, E. A., Hatzoglou, A., Stathopoulos, E. N., Stournaras, C., and Castanas, E. (2002) The human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP bears functional membrane testosterone receptors that increase PSA secretion and modify actin cytoskeleton. Faseb. J. 16, 1429–1431.

21. Hatzoglou, A., Kampa, M., Kogia, C., Charalampopoulos, I., Theodoropoulos, P. A., Anezinis, P., Dambaki, C., Papakonstanti, E. A., Stathopoulos, E. A., Stournaras, C., Gravanis, A., and Castanas E. (2005) Membrane androgen receptor activation induces apoptotic regression of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90, 893–903.

25. Papakonstanti, E. A., Kampa, M., Castanas, E., and Stournaras, C. (2003) A rapid, nongenomic, signaling pathway regulates the actin reorganization induced by activation of membrane testosterone receptors. Mol. Endocrinol. 17, 870–881.

34. Papadopoulou, N., Charalampopoulos, I., Alevizopoulos, K., Gravanis, A., and Stournaras, C. 2008. Rho/ROCK/Actin signaling regualtes membrane androgen receptor induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Exp. Cell. Res., 314, 3162–3174.

Anmerkungen

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Sichter
(SleepyHollow02), Hindemith

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