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Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 5, Zeilen: 1-13
Quelle: Li 2004
Seite(n): 9, 14, 15, Zeilen: 9: 2ff; 14: 18ff; 15: 1ff
The number of receptors is increased during starvation and decreased in obesity and acromegaly (14). The affinity of the receptor for the second insulin molecule is significantly lower than for the first bound molecule. This may explain the negative cooperative interactions observed at high insulin concentrations. That is, as the concentration of insulin increases and more receptors become occupied, the affinity of the receptors for insulin decreases (15). Conversely, at low insulin concentrations, positive cooperation has been recorded. That is, the binding of insulin to its receptor at low insulin concentrations seems to enhance further binding.

The alpha cells in the pancreas release glucagon, a protein hormone that has important effects in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Glucagon mobilizes glucose, fatty acids and amino acids from storage into the blood. When the glucose concentration level in the plasma is low, the liver converts glucagon to glucose. Both insulin and glucagon are important in the regulation of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism.


14. Pav,J, Marek,J, Sramkova,J: [The effect of acromegaly treatment on glucose tolerance]. Cas.Lek.Cesk. 125:1451-1454, 1986

15. Niessen,M, Jaschinski,F, Item,F, McNamara,MP, Spinas,GA, Trub,T: Insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 but not Shc can activate the insulin receptor independent of insulin and induce proliferation in CHO-IR cells. Exp.Cell Res. 313:805-815, 2007

[page 14]

The number of receptors is increased during starvation and decreased in obesity and acromegaly. But, the receptor affinity is decreased by excess glucocorticoids. The affinity of the receptor for the second insulin molecule is significantly lower than for the first bound molecule. This may explain the negative cooperative interactions observed at high insulin concentrations. That is, as the concentration of insulin increases and more receptors become occupied, the affinity of the receptors for insulin decreases. Conversely, at low insulin concentrations, positive cooperation has been recorded. That

[page 15]

is, the binding of insulin to its receptor at low insulin concentrations seems to enhance further binding (([89]), [86]).

[page 9]

The α cells release glucagon, a protein hormone that has important effects in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Glucagon is a catabolic hormone, that is, it mobilizes glucose, fatty acids and amino acids from storage into the blood. When the glucose concentration level in the plasma is low, the liver will convert the glucagon to glucose.

Both insulin and glucagon are important in the regulation of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism.


[86] S.Wanant and M. J. Quon, Insulin Receptor Binding Kinetics: Modeling and Simulation Studies, J. Theor. Bio., 205 (2000), 355-364.

[89] http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/ pathphys/endocrine/pancreas/index.html

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith), LieschenMueller

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