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[1.] Sng/Fragment 023 04 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-05-22 22:02:19 Schumann
Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Makhinson et al 1999, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Sng

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 23, Zeilen: 4-16
Quelle: Makhinson et al 1999
Seite(n): 2507-2508, Zeilen: 2507:re.Sp. 47-62 - 2508:li.Sp. 1-2
The Lisman model of LTP (Lisman and McIntyre, 2001) proposes that patterns of synaptic activity that produce low levels of NMDA receptor activation and small increase in intracellular Ca2+ depress synaptic strength via a cascade of protein phosphatase activation (Mulkey et al., 1993). This cascade of protein phosphatase activation is thought to entail a Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent activation of calcineurin, that dephosphorylates the PP1 regulatory protein inhibitor-1 (Mulkey et al., 1994). Dephosphorylation of inhibitor-1 activates PP1 that in turn dephosphorylates CaMKII. In contrast, stronger levels of NMDA receptor activation and larger increase in intracellular Ca2+ induce LTP by increasing levels of autophosphorylated CaMKII via a simultaneous activation of CaMKII and downregulation of PP1. In the model, a large increase in Ca2+ is thought to suppress PP1 activation by stimulating Ca2+- and calmodulin-sensitive isoforms of adenylate cyclase (AC) and by activating PKA that suppresses PP1 activation by opposing calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation of inhibitor-1.

94. Lisman JE, McIntyre CC (2001) Synaptic plasticity: a molecular memory switch. Curr Biol 11: R788-R791.

110. Mulkey RM, Endo S, Shenolikar S, Malenka RC (1994) Involvement of a calcineurin/inhibitor-1 phosphatase cascade in hippocampal long-term depression. Nature 369: 486-488.

111. Mulkey RM, Herron CE, Malenka RC (1993) An essential role for protein phosphatases in hippocampal long-term depression. Science 261: 1051-1055.

[Seite 2507]

The Lisman model of LTP (Lisman, 1994) proposes that patterns of synaptic activity that produce low levels of NMDA receptor activation and small increases in intracellular Ca2+ depress synaptic strength via a cascade of protein phosphatase activation (Mulkey and Malenka, 1992; Mulkey et al., 1993, 1994). This cascade of protein phosphatase activation is thought to entail a Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent activation of calcineurin that dephosphorylates the PP1 regulatory protein inhibitor-1 (Mulkey et al., 1994). Dephosphorylation of inhibitor-1 activates PP1 that in turn dephosphorylates CaMKII. In contrast, stronger levels of NMDA receptor activation and larger increases in intracellular Ca2+ induce LTP by increasing levels of autophosphorylated CaMKII via a simultaneous activation of CaMKII and downregulation of PP1. In the model, a large increase in Ca2+ is thought to suppress PP1 activation by stimulating Ca2+- and calmodulin-sensitive isoforms of AC and by

[Seite 2508]

activating PKA that suppresses PP1 activation by opposing calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation of inhibitor-1.


Lisman JE (1994) The CaM kinase II hypothesis for the storage of synaptic memory. Trends Neurosci 17:406–412.

Mulkey RM, Malenka RC (1992) Mechanisms underlying induction of homosynaptic long-term depression in area CA1 of the hippocampus. Neuron 9:967–975.

Mulkey RM, Herron CE, Malenka RC (1993) An essential role for protein phosphatases in hippocampal long-term depression. Science 261:1051–1055.

Mulkey RM, Endo S, Shenolikar A, Malenka RC (1994) Involvement of a calcineurin/inhibitor-1 phosphatase cascade in hippocampal longterm depression. Nature 369:486–488.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[2.] Sng/Fragment 023 17 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-05-22 22:04:19 Schumann
Blitzer et al 2005, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Sng

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 23, Zeilen: 17-22
Quelle: Blitzer et al 2005
Seite(n): 114, Zeilen: re.Sp. 39-47
A major target for Ca2+ is CaMKII, and among its many actions are the phosphorylation of GluR1 at serine 831 (which increases the channel conductance of the AMPA receptor; (Lee et al., 2000)), and the insertion of the receptor into the postsynaptic membrane through an indirect mechanism; (Hayashi et al., 2000). From a network perspective, the multiple effects of activated CaMKII define it as a ´node´, a point where a signal is split and directed to multiple targets (Schmitt et al., 2005).

66. Hayashi Y, Shi SH, Esteban JA, Piccini A, Poncer JC, Malinow R (2000) Driving AMPA receptors into synapses by LTP and CaMKII: requirement for GluR1 and PDZ domain interaction. Science 287: 2262-2267.

92. Lee HK, Barbarosie M, Kameyama K, Bear MF, Huganir RL (2000) Regulation of distinct AMPA receptor phosphorylation sites during bidirectional synaptic plasticity. Nature 405: 955-959.

141. Schmitt JM, Guire ES, Saneyoshi T, Soderling TR (2005) Calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase/calmodulin kinase I activity gates extracellular-regulated kinase-dependent long-term potentiation. J Neurosci 25: 1281-1290.

A major target for Ca2+ is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase type II (CaMKII), a major component of the postsynaptic density. Among its many actions are the phosphorylation of GluR1 at serine 831 (which increases the channel conductance of the AMPA receptor; Lee et al 2000), and the insertion of the receptor into the postsynaptic membrane (through an indirect mechanism; Hayashi et al 2000). From a network perspective, the multiple effects of activated CaMKII define it as a “node,” a point where a signal is split and directed to multiple targets.

Hayashi Y, Shi SH, Esteban JA, Piccini A, Poncer JC, Malinow R (2000): Driving AMPA receptors into synapses by LTP and CaMKII: Requirement for GluR1 and PDZ domain interaction. Science 287:2262–2267.

Lee HK, Barbarosie M, Kameyama K, Bear MF, Huganir RL (2000): Regulation of distinct AMPA receptor phosphorylation sites during bidirectional synaptic plasticity. Nature 405:955–959.

Anmerkungen

Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann


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