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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 10, Zeilen: 1ff (komplett)
Quelle: Waelzlein 2007
Seite(n): 12, Zeilen: 1ff
Tab. 1.1. The World Health Organization (WHO) grading system for astrocytomas

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In the present work research and conclusions will be restricted to cells representing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or glioma, i.e. a grade IV brain tumor.

1.2. Epidemiology of gliomas

Gliomas or glioblastomas occur with an incidence of 5 in 100,000 (Friese, M.A.et al, 2004). The peak of onset of glioblastomas is around 50 - 55 years, which makes them a strongly age-related pathology. Men are slightly more prone to these neoplasms. Furthermore, the incidence is 2 - 3 times higher in white than in black people. Prognosis is poor and the median survival has remained at 9 to 12 months for decades (Stupp, R et al, 2005), only few patients survive for three or more years. Main risk factors are high dose radiation, hereditary syndromes and increasing age. Although the last years have revealed some major approaches to develop new surgical and radiation techniques as well as multiple antineoplastic drugs, a cure for glioblastoma remains elusive (DeAngelis, L.M. et al, 2001).

Tab. 1.2. The World Health Organization (WHO) grading system for astrocytomas

Scr 010a source.png

In the present work research and conclusions will be restricted to cells representing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), i.e. a grade IV brain tumour.

1.3.1. Epidemiology of gliomas

Gliomas occur with an incidence of 5 in 100,000 (19). They make up 44 % of all primary brain tumours and 52 % of these are represented by the glioblastoma multiforme. The peak of onset of glioblastomas is around 50 - 55 years, which makes them a strongly age-related pathology. Men are slightly more prone to these neoplasms. Furthermore, the incidence is 2 - 3 times higher in white than in black people. Prognosis is poor and the median survival is 14.6 months (67); only few patients survive for three or more years. Main risk factors are high dose radiation, hereditary syndromes and increasing age. Although the last years have revealed some major approaches to develop new surgical and radiation techniques as well as multiple antineoplastic drugs, a cure for glioblastoma remains elusive (11).


11. DeAngelis,L.M. 2001. Brain tumors. N.Engl.J.Med. 344:114-123.

19. Friese,M.A., Steinle,A., and Weller,M. 2004. The innate immune response in the central nervous system and its role in glioma immune surveillance. Onkologie. 27:487-491.

67. Stupp,R., Mason,W.P., van den Bent,M.J., Weller,M., Fisher,B., Taphoorn,M.J., Belanger,K., Brandes,A.A., Marosi,C., Bogdahn,U. et al. 2005. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N.Engl.J.Med. 352:987- 996.

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