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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 12, Zeilen: 1ff (komplett)
Quelle: Waelzlein 2007
Seite(n): 12, 13, 15, Zeilen: 12: letzter Absatz; 13. 1ff; 15: 7ff
[Although many efforts have been made during the last years to improve] the existing therapies, the biggest problem is still the extreme invasive nature of glioblastomas. It is virtually impossible to prevent migration of tumor cells into the adjacent brain tissue, which may be the primary cause for relapses.

1.4. Pathophysiology of gliomas

Glioma or Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) consist of a heterogenous mixture of poorly differentiated neoplastic astrocytes (Holland, E.C.et al, 2001). They can occur as primary, which means de novo tumors but can also, although less frequent, develop from lower grade astrocytomas and thus are defined as secondary tumors. The latter typically develop in younger patients (< 45 years) whereas de novo tumors arise almost solely in elderly patients (around 65 years). The tumor as such forms a solid mass from which neoplastic cells are disseminating into the adjacent brain tissue. The tumor itself can reach a considerable size and squeeze out larger amounts of brain mass (Fig. 1.4.), which usually leads to diverse neurological defects.

Scr 012a diss.png

Fig. 1.4. Macroscopic view of glioblastoma multiforme in a human brain

(www.neuropat.dote.hu/jpeg/tumor/3gliobl1).

Although primary and secondary tumors differ on the genetic level in many ways, there are some common genetic abnormalities, which are considered as hallmarks of glioblastomas. One of them is the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 10, which seems to be specific for grade IV brain tumors.

1.3.2. The pathophysiology of glioblastoma

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) consist of a heterogenous mixture of poorly differentiated neoplastic astrocytes (31). They can occur as primary, which means de novo tumours but can also, although less frequent, develop from lower grade astrocytomas and thus are defined as secondary tumours. The latter typically develop in younger patients


[Seite 13]

(< 45 years) whereas de novo tumours arise almost solely in elderly patients (around 65 years).

The tumour as such forms a solid mass from which neoplastic cells are disseminating into the adjacent brain tissue. The tumour itself can reach a considerable size and squeeze out larger amounts of brain mass (fig. 1.3.), which usually leads to diverse neurological defects.

Scr 012a source.png

Fig. 1.3. Macroscopic view of glioblastoma multiforme in a human brain

(www.neuropat.dote.hu/jpeg/tumor/3gliobl1).

Although primary and secondary tumours differ on the genetic level in many ways, there are some common genetic abnormalities, which are considered as hallmarks of glioblastomas. One of them is the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 10, which seems to be specific for grade IV brain tumours.

[Seite 15]

Although many efforts have been made during the last years to improve the existing therapies, the biggest problem is still the extreme invasive nature of glioblastomas. It is virtually impossible to prevent migration of tumour cells into the adjacent brain tissue, which is the cause of relapses in most cases.


31. Holland,E.C. 2001. Gliomagenesis: genetic alterations and mouse models. Nat.Rev.Genet. 2:120-129.

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