# Tim/Fragment 073 01

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Quelle: Shang Dong 2008
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In addition, organic fluorophores tend to have small Stokes shifts, thus limiting their utility in the fields, such as ratiometric measurements and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)- based detection (Demchenko, 2005). Compared with conventional organic fluorophores, the recently developed semiconductor quantum dots show great promise as the fluorescence probes due to their improved photophysical properties, including high quantum yield, size-tunable narrow emissions and minimal photobleaching (Costa-Fernaˇındez et al., 2006; Somers et al., 2007). However, these nanocrystalline materials still suffer from several issues, such as the harsh and toxic conditions in the synthesis, large physical size, strong non-molecular low-power fluorescence intermittency, which also limit their further application in fluorescence sensing research (Verberk et al., 2002; Derfus et al., 2004; Vosch et al., 2007). Therefore, the development of new fluorophores that can challenge the above problems is of great importance for both fluorescence sensing and other fluorescence-based applications like fluorescence imaging (Rao et al., 2007). In addition, organic fluorophores tend to have small Stokes shifts, thus limiting their utility in the fields, such as ratiometric measurements and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)- based detection (Demchenko, 2005). Compared with conventional organic fluorophores, the recently developed semiconductor quantum dots show great promise as the fluorescence probes due to their improved photophysical properties, including high quantum yield, size-tunable narrow emissions and minimal photobleaching (Costa-Fernaˇındez et al., 2006; Somers et al., 2007). However, these nanocrystalline materials still suffer from several issues, such as the harsh and toxic conditions in the synthesis, large physical size, strong non-molecular low-power fluorescence intermittency, which also limit their further application in fluorescence sensing research (Verberk et al., 2002; Derfus et al., 2004; Vosch et al., 2007). Therefore, the development of new fluorophores that can challenge the above problems is of great importance for both fluorescence sensing and other fluorescence-based applications like fluorescence imaging (Rao et al., 2007).
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