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Reconsolidation: Propagation of spreading depression between the neocortex and the hippocampus: the barrier of the entorhinal cortex

von Dr. Tanja Martens-Mantai

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[1.] Tmm/Fragment 012 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-27 00:35:20 Hindemith
El Harrak 2009, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Tmm

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KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 12, Zeilen: 1-21
Quelle: El Harrak 2009
Seite(n): 10, 11, Zeilen: 10: 13ff - 11: 1ff
Patent gap junctions may provide a path not only for electric current and for ions but also for intracellular “second” messengers and other active ingredients in cytosol. SD has frequently been interpreted as a diffusion-reaction process whose velocity of spread is governed by the rate of the reaction, which could involve the release of some substance from cells that then acted on the cell membrane of adjacent cells. As there are reasons for doubting a decisive role of either K or of glutamate, we are proposing an alternative hypothesis, involving the exchange of chemical signals not through the interstitial space but by way of gap junctions. The autocatalytic reaction so initiated would alter the membrane from the inside, instead of acting on receptors on the outside.

Cortical structures are organized to process information in a parallel manner via excitatory and inhibitory interactions within and between adjacent cortical modules (Mountcastle, 1997). Throughout the CNS, local circuit inhibition plays an integral role in both neuronal network processing and the regulation of the excitability of projection neurons. Inhibitory circuits may be particularly important to signal processing in cortical networks with pronounced recurrent excitatory interactions (Wong et al., 1984). This inhibition may limit the propagation of excitation and facilitate discharge synchronization of projection neurons by inducing a synchronous refractory period. Breakdown in the dynamic balance of inhibitory and excitatory interaction can lead to a functional disconnection (Wong and Prince, 1990) and disrupts the normal spread of lateral excitation (Grunze et al., 1996).

Patent gap junctions may provide a path not only for electric current and for ions but also for intracellular “second” messengers and other active ingredients in cytosol. SD has frequently been interpreted as a diffusion-reaction process whose velocity of spread is governed by the rate of the reaction, which could involve the release of some substance from cells that then acted on the cell membrane of adjacent cells. As there are reasons for doubting a decisive role of either K or of glutamate, we are proposing an alternative hypothesis, involving the exchange of chemical signals not through the interstitial space but by way of gap junctions. The autocatalytic reaction so initiated would alter the membrane from the inside, instead of acting on receptors on the outside.

Cortical structures are organized to process information in a parallel manner via excitatory and inhibitory interactions within and between adjacent cortical modules (Mountcastle, 1997). Throughout the CNS, local circuit inhibition plays an integral role in both neuronal network processing and the regulation of the excitability of projection neurons. Inhibitory circuits may

[page 11]

be particularly important to signal processing in cortical networks with pronounced recurrent excitatory interactions (Wong et al., 1984). This inhibition may limit the lateral spread of excitation and facilitate discharge synchronization of projection neurons by inducing a synchronous refractory period. Breakdown in the dynamic balance of inhibitory and excitatory interaction can lead to a functional disconnection (Wong and Prince, 1990) and disrupts the normal spread of lateral excitation (Grunze et al., 1996).

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[2.] Tmm/Fragment 012 22 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-28 16:45:13 Schumann
Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Tmm, Wernsmann et al 2006

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KomplettPlagiat
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Hindemith
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 12, Zeilen: 22-29
Quelle: Wernsmann et al 2006
Seite(n): 1103, Zeilen: l.col: 25ff, r.col:1-11
The hippocampus has direct and important functional interactions with brain areas likely to be important to migraine, such as the areas associated with vision, emotions and neuroendocrine homeostasis. The connection between entorhinal cortex and hippocampus is regarded as an important loop responsible for the processing of sensory information (Vaisanen et al., 1999). Thus, these medial temporal lobe structures may play a crucial role in the development of somatosensory and neuropsychotic symptoms in neurological disorders such as epilepsy and migraine (Eid et al. 1995). As memories in humans depend initially on the medial temporal lobe system, including the [hippocampus, it was suggested that interictal memory dysfunction in patients with migraine might be attributed to the hippocampus involvement (Kupfermann, 1966).] The hippocampus has direct and important functional interactions with brain areas likely to be important to migraine, such as the areas associated with vision, emotions and neuroendocrine homeostasis. The connection between entorhinal cortex and hippocampus is regarded as an important loop responsible for the processing of sensory information (Vaisanen et al., 1999). Thus, these medial temporal lobe structures may play a crucial role in the development of somatosensory and neuropsychotic symptoms in neurological disorders such as epilepsy and migraine (Eid et al., 1995). As memories in humans depend initially on the medial temporal lobe system, including the hippocampus, it was suggested that interictal memory dysfunction in patients with migraine might be attributed to the hippocampus involvement (Kupfermann, 1966; Kapp & Schneider, 1971).
Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1


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