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Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 3, Zeilen: 1-14
Quelle: Granz 2009
Seite(n): 6, 7, Zeilen: 6:5ff; 7: 1ff
03 diss Tmm.png

Figure 1.: Aristides Azevedo Pacheco Leão. Journal of Nourophysiology, 1944 (classic figure of SD discovery), Alterations of electrical activities recorded from a rabbit during propagation of spreading depression (SD). Traces reveal propagation of flattening of epileptiform burst potentials elicited by spreading of cortical SD as well as gradual propagating recovery of these activities.

SD can be initiated by different stimuli and so can be directly studied in various in vivo and in vitro experimental animal models. It was first induced by applying a brief tetanus of faradic stimulation to the rabbit neocortex (Leao, 1944; Bures et al., 1974; Fig. 1). However, such stimuli could lead to convulsive activity spreading from the stimulated area and so other investigators employed direct current (DC) stimuli (Leao & Morrison, 1945; Ochs, 1962). Mechanical stimulation, for example, by stroking of the cortical surface with a blunt instrument, a falling weight or even lightly tapping the cortex also initiates SD (Lea˜o, 1944; Zachar and Zacharova´, 1963). More recent studies have achieved more reliable and reproducible induction of SD by rapidly inserting and retracting hypodermic steel needles (Kaube and Goadsby, 1994; Lambert et al., 1999; Ebersberger et al., 2001). However, one of the most common models of SD initiation is KCl application to the neuronal tissues (Wernsmann et al., 2006; Dehbandi et al., 2008). This model has been proven to be the most reliable stimulus leading to reproducible events on earlier occasions in both non-imaging and imaging studies (Martins-Ferreira [et al., 2000; Bradley et al., 2001).]

SD can be initiated by different stimuli and so can be directly studied in various in vivo and in vitro experimental models. It was first induced by applying a brief tetanus of faradic stimulation to the rabbit cortex (Leao, 1944; Bures, Buresova & Kriva´nek, 1974; Fig. 1). However, such stimuli could lead to convulsive activity spreading from the stimulated area and so subsequent authors preferred to employ direct current (DC) stimuli (Leao & Morrison, 1945; Ochs, 1962). Mechanical stimulation, for example, by stroking of the cortical surface with a blunt instrument, a falling weight or even lightly tapping the cortex also initiates SD (Lea˜o, 1944; Zachar & Zacharova´, 1963). More recent studies have achieved more reliable and reproducible induction of SD by rapidly inserting and retracting hypodermic steel needles (Kaube and Goadsby, 1994; Lambert et al., 1999; Ebersberger et al., 2001). However, one of the most common models of SD initiation is KCl application to the neuronal tissues (Wernsmann et al., 2006; Dehbandi et al., 2008). This model has been proven

to be the most reliable stimulus leading to reproducible events on earlier occasions in both non-imaging and imaging studies (Martins-Ferreira et al., 2000; Bradley et al., 2001).

[page 7]

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Fig. 1: Aristides Azevedo Pacheco Leão. Journal of Nourophysiology, 1944, Changes of bioelectrical activities recorded from a rabbit during propagation of spreading depression (SD). Traces reveal propagation of flattening epileptiform field potentials induced by spreading of cortical SD as well as spreading recovery of these activities.

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