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Genetic Diversity of Helicobacter pylori Isolates in Sudan

von Dr. Wael Faroug Elamin

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[1.] Wfe/Fragment 001 01 - Diskussion
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Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Wanken 2003, Wfe

Typus
Verschleierung
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Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Helicobacter pylori

1.1.1 History

Spiral organisms in the stomachs of mammals were first reported in 1893 in Turin by Bizzozero. By the end of 1940, two additional reports of spiral gastric bacteria had appeared (Marshall, 2001). Although it was noted in 1924 by Murray Luck that the human stomach contains abundant urease activity and it was shown in 1959 that this activity disappeared after antibiotic treatment (indicating that the enzyme was of bacterial origin), the connection between gastric urease and gastric spiral bacteria was not established until the culturing of H. pylori in 1982 (Marshall and Warren, 1984). Research on gastric bacteria was at first impeded by the general belief that bacteria could not live in the acidic environment of the stomach. It was not until 1982 that H. pylori was first cultured by a research scientist, Barry Marshall, through the encouragement of a pathologist, Robin Warren. The first successful culture occurred by chance when a biopsy was left in the incubator for 5 days over the Easter holidays. By 1984, other groups had independently reported the disease associations of the organism (Langenberg et al., 1984; McNulty and Watson, 1984). Marshall hypothesized that the new bacterium was a Campylobacter found in the pyloric region of the stomach and therefore called it Campylobacter pyloridis, even though the new organism had different flagellar morphology than campylobacters.


Langenberg, M., G. Tytgat, M. Schipper, P. Rietra, and H. Zanen, Campylobacter like organisms in the stomach of patients and healthy individuals, The Lancet, 323, 1348-1349, 1984.

Marshall, B. J., One hundred years of discovery and rediscovery of Helicobacter pylori and its association with peptic ulcer disease, chap. 3, pp. 19-24, Helicobacter pylori: Physiology and genetics; ASM, 2001.

Marshall, B. J., and J. R. Warren, Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration, Lancet, 1, 1311-1315, 1984.

McNulty, C. A., and D. M. Watson, Spiral bacteria of the gastric antrum, Lancet, 1, 1068-1069, 1984.

[Page 1]

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

History

Spiral organisms in the stomachs of mammals were discovered more than 125 years ago in 1874, and spiral bacteria were first reported in the human stomach in 1906. By the end of 1940, two additional reports of spiral gastric bacteria had appeared (64). Although it was noted in 1924 that the human stomach contains abundant urease activity (137) and it was shown in 1959 that this activity disappeared after antibiotic treatment (indicating that the enzyme was of bacterial origin), the connection between gastric urease and gastric spiral bacteria was not established until the culturing of H. pylori in 1983 (102, 103, 165).

Research on gastric bacteria was at first impeded by the general belief that bacteria could not live in the acidic environment of the stomach (64, 137). It was not until 1983 that H. pylori was first cultured by a research scientist, Barry Marshall, through the encouragement of a pathologist, Robin Warren (102).

[Page 2]

The first successful culture occurred by chance when a biopsy was left in the incubator for 5 days over the Easter holidays in April 1982 (64, 137). By 1984, two other groups had independently reported the disease associations of the organism (137). Marshall hypothesized that the new bacterium was a Campylobacter found in the pyloric region of the stomach and therefore called it Campylobacter pyloridis (102), even though the new organism had different flagellar morphology than campylobacters.


64. Goodwin, S. 1993. Historical and microbiological perspectives, p. 1-10. In T. C. Northfield, M. Mendall, and P. M. Goggin (ed.), Helicobacter pylori infection: Pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

102. Marshall, B. J., H. Royce, D. I. Annear, C. S. Goodwin, J. W. Pearman, J. R. Warren, and J. A. Armstrong. 1984. Original isolation of Campylobacter pyloridis new species from human gastric mucosa. Microbios Lett. 25:83-88.

103. Marshall, B. J., and J. R. Warren. 1984. Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet 1:1311-5.

137. Rathbone, B. J., and R. V. Heatley. 1992. The historical associations between bacteria and peptic ulcer disease, p. 1-4. In B. J. Rathbone and R. V. Heatley (ed.), Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal disease, 2nd ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

165. Warren, J. R., and B. Marshall. 1983. Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis. The Lancet:1273-5.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation; the source is not given.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith


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