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Genetic Diversity of Helicobacter pylori Isolates in Sudan

von Dr. Wael Faroug Elamin

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[1.] Wfe/Fragment 014 04 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-01-09 22:04:39 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Wfe, Wikipedia Recent African origin of modern humans 2007

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Quelle: Wikipedia Recent African origin of modern humans 2007
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In paleoanthropology, the recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH, or Out-of-Africa model, or Replacement Hypothesis) is one of two influential accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. According to the RSOH, anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, with members of one branch leaving Africa between 55000 to 80,000 years ago. In paleoanthropology, the recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH, or Out-of-Africa model, or Replacement Hypothesis) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. According to the RSOH, anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa before 200,000 to 100,000 years ago, with members of one branch leaving Africa about 80,000 years ago.
Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[2.] Wfe/Fragment 014 11 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-01-09 22:04:14 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Salas et al 2002, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Wfe

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Quelle: Salas et al 2002
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The three main haplogroups, which are found only in Africa are L1, L2, and L3. Of interest and greater prevalence in East Africa is L3, where it accounts for about half of all types from this region. This frequency profile suggests an origin for L3 in East Africa (Watson et al., 1997; Forster, 2004). This is supported by the evidence that the out-of-Africa migration, which took place from a source in East Africa 60,000–80,000 years ago, gave rise only to L3 lineages outside Africa.

Forster, P., Ice ages and the mitochondrial DNA chronology of human dispersals: a review, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 359, 255-264, 2004.

Watson, E., P. Forster, M. Richards, and H. J. Bandelt, Mitochondrial footprints of human expansions in Africa, Am J Hum Genet, 61, 691-704, 1997.

We here define two previously unlabeled subclades of L3A, L3f, and L3g. The lineages remaining within L3* represent ∼20% of all L3A types in Africa. Although they are distributed throughout the continent, they reach the highest frequencies in East Africa, where they account for about half of all types from this region. This frequency profile suggests an origin for L3 in East Africa (Watson et al. 1997). This is supported by the evidence that the out-of-Africa migration, which took place from a source in East Africa 60,000–80,000 years ago, gave rise only to L3 lineages outside Africa.

Watson E, Forster P, Richards M, Bandelt H-J (1997) Mitochondrial footprints of human expansions in Africa. Am J Hum Genet 61:691–704

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation; the source is not given here, but mentioned in passing on this page later on.

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(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[3.] Wfe/Fragment 014 20 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-01-01 23:31:04 Schumann
Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Wfe, Wikipedia Haplogroup M (mtDNA) 2006

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Quelle: Wikipedia Haplogroup M (mtDNA) 2006
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The macro-Haplogroups M and N are a branch of the African haplogroup L3 and span many continents. They are believed to have originated in Africa some 80,000 years before present. Both haplogroups are believed to represent the initial migration by modern humans out of Africa. Haplogroup M particularly represents the dispersal of modern human into Eurasia some 60,000 years ago along the Southern Asian coastline. Owing to its old age, haplogroup M is one of those mtDNA lineages which does not correspond well to present-day racial groups, as it spans East Asian, South-East Asian, South Asian, Amerindian, as well as Ethiopian and various Middle Eastern groups in lesser frequency (Salas et al., 2002).

Salas, A., M. Richards, T. De la Fe, M. V. Lareu, B. Sobrino, P. Sánchez-Diz, V. Macaulay, and A. Carracedo, The making of the African mtDNA landscape, Am J Hum Genet, 71, 1082-1111, 2002.

An enormous haplogroup spanning many continents, the macro-Haplogroup M is a branch of the African haplogroup L3, and is believed to have originated in Africa some 80,000 years before present.

The two haplogroups M and N are believed to represent the initial migration by modern humans out of Africa. Haplogroup M in particular represents the dispersal of modern human into Eurasia some 60,000 years ago along the southern Asian coastline.

[...]

Owing to its great age, haplogroup M is one of those mtDNA lineages which does not correspond well to present-day racial groups, as it spans East Asian, South-East Asian, South Asian, Amerindian, as well as Ethiopian and various Middle Eastern groups in lesser frequency.

Anmerkungen

Though nearly identical, nothing has been marked as a citation; the source is not given. Strangely enough, the source named here has been used earlier on this page of W.F.E.'s thesis (cf. Fragment 014 11) but was not named there. Furthermore this passage is not to be found in Salas et al (2002).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith


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