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Genetic Diversity of Helicobacter pylori Isolates in Sudan

von Dr. Wael Faroug Elamin

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[1.] Wfe/Fragment 019 02 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-01-09 22:04:58 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Library of Congress 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Wfe

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 19, Zeilen: 2-29
Quelle: Library of Congress 2004
Seite(n): 1, 2, Zeilen: 1: 23ff; 2: 1ff
1.3.2 History

Northern Sudan was inhabited by hunter-gatherers by at least 60,000 years ago. With the advent of pastoralists, these people had given way to them and probably to agriculturalists at least by the fourth millennium B.C. Sudan's subsequent culture and history have largely revolved around relations to the South with tropical Africa, and to the North with Egypt, the Nile River forming a bridge through the Sahara Desert between the two. The Ancient Egyptians sent military expeditions into Nubia, and at times occupied it as well as Cush, the land between the second and sixth cataracts, influencing the population of the North. From the early eighth century to the mid-seventh century B. C., the Cushites conquered and ruled Egypt. By the early sixth century B.C., the Cushitic state of Meroe had emerged and it eventually extended southward almost to present-day Khartoum. Meroe was in a good position for trade, as trade passing North to Egypt stopped there. The Meroites also had a route to and from the Red Sea, and, on the Red Sea, trade was increasing to and from India and East Asia. Meroe also maintained commercial relations with the Roman world, developed a distinctive culture and written language, and became the locale of an iron-working industry. It succumbed to invasion in the mid-fourth century A.D., their Conquerors being the neighboring Aksum kingdom, based in Ethiopia. By the sixth century, three states emerged as the political and cultural heirs of the Meroitic kingdom. They were all ruled by warrior aristocracies who converted to Christianity, accepting the Monophysite rite of Egypt. The use of Greek in liturgy was encouraged by the church and eventually gave way to the Nubian language. Arabic, however, gained importance after the seventh century, especially as a medium for commerce, after the expansion of the Muslim empire. With the disintegration of the Christian Nubian kingdoms by the fifteenth century, Islamic culture and religion spread throughout Northern and Eastern Sudan. Pastoralists from Egypt advanced into the land, gradually giving rise to a new population composed of local Nubians and Muslim Arabs (Fadlalla, 2004).


Fadlalla, M, H,, Short History of Sudan, i universe, 2004,

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Prehistory and Early History: Northern Sudan was inhabited by hunting and gathering peoples by at least 60,000 years ago. These peoples had given way to pastoralists and probably agriculturalists at least by the fourth millennium B.C. Sudan’s subsequent culture and history have largely revolved around relations to the north with Egypt and to the south with tropical Africa, the Nile River forming a “bridge” through the Sahara Desert between the two. The Ancient Egyptians sent military expeditions into Nubia, the region between the first and second Nile cataracts, and at times occupied Nubia as well as Cush, the land between the second and sixth cataracts, the population becoming partially Egyptianized. From the early eighth century to the mid-seventh century B. C., the Cushites conquered and ruled Egypt. By the early sixth

[page 2]

century B.C., a Cushitic state, Meroe, had emerged that eventually extended southward almost to present-day Khartoum. Meroe maintained commercial relations with the Roman world, developed a distinctive culture and written language, and became the locale of an iron-working industry. It succumbed to invasion in the mid-fourth century A. D.

By the sixth century, three states had emerged as the political and cultural heirs of the Meroitic kingdom. All were ruled by warrior aristocracies who converted to Christianity, accepting the Monophysite rite of Egypt. The church encouraged literacy, the use of Greek in liturgy eventually giving way to the Nubian language. Arabic, however, gained importance after the seventh century, especially as a medium for commerce. With the disintegration of the Christian Nubian kingdoms by the fifteenth century, Islamic civilization and religion spread throughout northern and eastern Sudan. Pastoralists from Egypt filtered into the land, gradually giving rise to a new population composed of local Nubians and Muslim Arabs.

Anmerkungen

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Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann


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